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Amr ibn al-As
Amr Ibn Al As Mosque 3.jpg
The Amr ibn al-As mosque in Fustat, Egypt
Governor of Egypt
In office
640–646
Monarch Uthman (r. 644 – 646)
Umar (r. 640 – 644)
Preceded by Office established
Succeeded by Abdallah ibn Sa'd
In office
August/September 658 – 664
Monarch Mu'awiya I (r. 661 – 664)
Preceded by Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr
Succeeded by Abd Allah ibn Amr
Utba ibn Abi Sufyan
Governor of Palestine
In office
634–639
Monarch Umar (r. 634 – 639)
Abu Bakr (r. 634 – 634)
Preceded by Office established
Succeeded by Alqama ibn Mujazziz al-Kinani
Personal details
Born c. 573
Mecca, Hejaz
Died c. 664(664-00-00) (aged 90–91)
Egypt, Umayyad Caliphate
Spouse(s) Rayta or Hind bint Munabbih ibn al-Hajjaj
Unnamed woman from Bali tribe
Umm Kulthum bint Uqba (div.)
Relations
  • Hisham ibn al-A'as (brother)
  • Banu Sahm (clan)
Children Abd Allah
Muhammad
Parents Al-As ibn Wa'il
Al-Nabigha bint Harmala
Military service
Allegiance
Years of service 657–658
629–646
Battles/wars Campaigns of Muhammad
  • Raid of Dhat al-Salasil (629)

Muslim conquest of Syria

  • Battle of Dathin (634)
  • Battle of Ajnadayn (634)
  • Battle of Fahl (635)
  • Siege of Damascus (635)
  • Battle of Yarmouk (636)

Muslim conquest of Egypt

  • Battle of Heliopolis (640)
  • Siege of Babylon Fortress (640–641)
  • Siege of Alexandria (641–642)
  • Battle of Nikiou (646)

First Fitna

  • Battle of Siffin (657)
  • Battle of al-Musannah (658)

Amr ibn al-As al-Sahmi (Arabic: عَمْرِو بْنِ الْعَاصِ‎, romanized: ʿAmr ibn al-ʿĀṣ al-Sahmī ; c. 573 – 664) was the Arab commander who led the Muslim conquest of Egypt and served as its governor in 640–646 and 658–664. The son of a wealthy Qurayshite, Amr embraced Islam in c. 629 and was assigned important roles in the nascent Muslim community by the Islamic prophet Muhammad. The first caliph Abu Bakr (r. 632 – 634) appointed Amr as a commander of the conquest of Syria. He conquered most of Palestine, to which he was appointed governor, and led the Arabs to decisive victories over the Byzantines at the battles of Ajnadayn and Yarmouk in 634 and 636.

Amr launched the conquest of Egypt on his own initiative in late 639, defeating the Byzantines in a string of victories ending with the surrender of Alexandria in 641 or 642. It was the swiftest of the early Muslim conquests. This was followed by westward advances by Amr as far as Tripoli in present-day Libya. In a treaty signed with the Byzantine governor Cyrus, Amr guaranteed the security of Egypt's population and imposed a poll tax on non-Muslim adult males. He maintained the Coptic-dominated bureaucracy and cordial ties with the Coptic patriarch Benjamin. He founded Fustat as the provincial capital with the mosque later called after him at its center. Amr ruled relatively independently, acquired significant wealth, and upheld the interests of the Arab conquerors who formed Fustat's garrison in relation to the central authorities in Medina. After gradually diluting Amr's authority, Caliph Uthman (r. 644 – 656) dismissed him in 646 after accusations of incompetency from his successor Abd Allah ibn Abi Sarh.

After mutineers from Egypt assassinated Uthman, Amr distanced himself from their cause, despite previously instigating opposition against Uthman. In the ensuing First Muslim Civil War, Amr joined Mu'awiya ibn Abi Sufyan, against Caliph Ali (r. 656 – 661) due to promises of the governorship of Egypt and its taxes. Amr served as Mu'awiya's representative in the abortive arbitration talks to end the war. Afterward, he wrested control of Egypt from Ali's loyalists, killing its governor Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr, and assumed the governorship instead. Mu'awiya kept him in his post after establishing the Umayyad Caliphate in 661 and Amr ruled the province until his death.

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