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Johann Joachim Winckelmann
Johann Joachim Winckelmann (Raphael Mengs after 1755).jpg
Portrait by Raphael Mengs, after 1755
Born (1717-12-09)9 December 1717
Stendal, Margraviate of Brandenburg
Died 8 June 1768(1768-06-08) (aged 50)
Nationality German
Alma mater University of Halle
Known for Geschichte der Kunst des Alterthums (The History of Art in Antiquity; 1764)
Contribution to the rise of the neoclassical movement
Scientific career
Fields Archaeology, art history
Influences Giovanni Battista Agucchi, Giovanni Pietro Bellori, Johann Friedrich Christ [de], Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten
Influenced Wickhoff, Justi, Lessing, Herder, Goethe, Hölderlin, Heine, Nietzsche, George, Spengler, Strauss
Johann Joachim Winckelmann by Ferdinand Pettrich 1866, Albertinum, Dresden
Johann Joachim Winckelmann by Ferdinand Pettrich 1866, Albertinum, Dresden

Johann Joachim Winckelmann ( 9 December 1717 – 8 June 1768) was a German art historian and archaeologist. He was a pioneering Hellenist who first articulated the difference between Greek, Greco-Roman and Roman art. "The prophet and founding hero of modern archaeology", Winckelmann was one of the founders of scientific archaeology and first applied the categories of style on a large, systematic basis to the history of art. Many consider him the father of the discipline of art history. He was one of the first to separate Greek Art into periods, and time classifications. His would be the decisive influence on the rise of the Neoclassical movement during the late 18th century. His writings influenced not only a new science of archaeology and art history but Western painting, sculpture, literature and even philosophy. Winckelmann's History of Ancient Art (1764) was one of the first books written in German to become a classic of European literature. His subsequent influence on Lessing, Herder, Goethe, Hölderlin, Heine, Nietzsche, George, and Spengler has been provocatively called "the Tyranny of Greece over Germany."

Today, Humboldt University of Berlin's Winckelmann Institute is dedicated to the study of classical archaeology.

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