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Callitris columellaris
Callitris glaucophylla DSC 2465.jpg
Callitris columellaris (C. glaucophylla)
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Genus:
Callitris
Species:
columellaris
Synonyms

Callitris arenosa A.Cunn. ex R.T.Baker & H.G.Sm.
Callitris columellaris var. campestris Silba
Callitris columellaris subsp. campestris (Silba) Silba
Callitris columellaris f. glauca F.M.Bailey
Callitris columellaris var. intratropica (R.T.Baker & H.G.Sm.) Silba
Callitris columellaris subsp. intratropica (R.T.Baker & H.G.Sm.) Silba
Callitris columellaris var. microcarpa (Benth.) Govaerts
Callitris glauca R.Br. ex R.T.Baker & H.G.Sm.
Callitris glaucophylla J.Thomps. & L.A.S.Johnson
Callitris hugelii (Carrière) Franco
Callitris intermedia R.T.Baker & H.G.Sm.
Callitris intratropica R.T.Baker & H.G.Sm.
Callitris robusta var. intratropica (R.T.Baker & H.G.Sm.) Ewart & O.B.Davies
Callitris robusta var. microcarpa (Benth.) F.M.Bailey
Frenela columellaris (F.Muell.) Parl.
Frenela hugelii Carrière
Frenela moorei Parl.
Frenela robusta var. microcarpa Benth.
Frenela verrucosa var. laevis C.Moore
Octoclinis backhousei W.Hill

Callitris columellaris is a species of coniferous tree in the family Cupressaceae (cypress family), native to most of Australia. Common names include White Cypress-pine, Murray River Cypress-pine, and Northern Cypress-pine. Callitris columellaris has become naturalised in Hawaii and in southern Florida.

Description

It is a small evergreen tree, 4–12 m (rarely to 20 m) high, with a trunk up to 50 cm diameter. The leaves are scale-like, 2–6 mm long and 0.5 mm broad, arranged in decussate whorls of three on very slender shoots 0.7–1 mm diameter. The cones are globose, 1–2 cm diameter, with six triangular scales, which open at maturity to release the seeds.

Taxonomy

Some authors (e.g. Thompson & Johnson 1986, followed by the Flora of Australia Online) divide it into three species (or occasionally as varieties), based largely on the foliage colour, with green plants predominating on the east coast of Australia, and glaucous plants in the interior, and on cone size, with on average marginally smaller cones in tropical areas (north of 22°S). However, others (e.g. Blake 1959, Farjon 2005) point out that both the foliage colour and cone size is very variable, even from tree to tree in local populations, and maintain that it is impossible to distinguish three taxa within the species. When split into three species, the following names apply:

  • Callitris columellaris F.Muell. sensu stricto – coastal northeast New South Wales, southeast Queensland.
  • Callitris glaucophylla Joy Thomps. & L.A.S.Johnson (syn. C. columellaris var. campestris Silba; C. glauca nom. inval.; C. hugelii nom. inval.) – throughout most of the southern half of Australia.
  • Callitris intratropica R.T.Baker & H.G.Smith (syn. C. columellaris var. intratropica Silba) – northern Queensland, northern Northern Territory, northern Western Australia.

Pollination

Eric Rolls described the pollination of C.columellaris thus: "At pollination time when hundreds of cones go off together with a sharp crack and spurt brown pollen a metre into the air, the whole tree shivers."

Gallery

  • Blake, S. T. (1959). New or noteworthy plants, chiefly from Queensland. Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland 70 (6): 33–46.
  • Farjon, A. (2005). Monograph of Cupressaceae and Sciadopitys, pp. 507–513. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ISBN: 1-84246-068-4.
  • Thompson, J. & Johnson, L. A. S. (1986). Callitris glaucophylla, Australia's 'White Cypress Pine' – a new name for an old species. Telopea 2 (6): 731–736.
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