Courts of Northern Ireland facts for kids
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The United Kingdom does not have a single unified judicial system: England and Wales have one system, Scotland another and Northern Ireland a third. There are exceptions to that rule, for example in immigration law, the jurisdiction of the First Tier Tribunal (Immigration & Asylum Chamber) and the Upper Tribunal covers the whole of the United Kingdom, and in employment law, there is a single system of Employment Tribunals for England and Wales and Scotland (but not Northern Ireland). Additionally, the Military Court Service has jurisdiction over all members of the armed forces of the United Kingdom in relation to offences against military law.
To overcome problems resulting from the intimidation of jurors and witnesses, the right to a jury trial in Northern Ireland was suspended for certain terrorist offences in 1972, and the so-called "Diplock courts" were introduced to try people charged with paramilitary activities. Diplock courts are common in Northern Ireland for crimes connected to terrorism.
Administration of the courts is the responsibility of the Northern Ireland Courts and Tribunals Service.
Court of Judicature
The Court of Judicature of Northern Ireland is constituted by the Judicature (Northern Ireland) Act 1978. Until 1 October 2009 its name was the Supreme Court of Judicature. The Court of Judicature is the most important superior court of Northern Ireland. It consists of the following courts:
- The Court of Appeal in Northern Ireland (Court of Appeal, formally "Her Majesty’s Court of Appeal in Northern Ireland")
- The High Court of Justice in Northern Ireland (High Court, formally "Her Majesty's High Court of Justice in Northern Ireland")
- The Crown Court
The title of the court was changed on 1 October 2009 when the relevant provisions of the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 came into force establishing the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom.
Court of Appeal
The Court of Appeal is the highest court specifically of Northern Ireland. Appeal from the Court of Appeal lies to the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom. The Court of Appeal hears appeals from the Crown Court, High Court, county courts, courts of summary jurisdiction and tribunals.
The High Court of Justice (High Court) is, like its English equivalent, split into three divisions: Queen's Bench Division, Family Division and Chancery Division. The High Court is located in the Royal Courts of Justice, Belfast.
The Crown Courts hear more serious criminal cases. These are indictable offences and "either way" offences which are committed for trial in the Crown Courts rather than the magistrates' courts.
Below the High Court are several classes of courts. Magistrates' courts (including youth courts, family proceedings courts and domestic proceedings courts) hear less-serious criminal cases and conduct preliminary hearings in more serious criminal cases. They are divided into 21 petty sessions districts. The Crown Court hears all serious criminal cases which are committed to trial. When sitting as family proceedings courts the magistrates' courts hear proceedings brought under the Children (Northern Ireland) Order 1995.
Additionally, there is the Enforcement of Judgments Office, and coroners' courts, which investigate the circumstances of sudden, violent or unnatural deaths.
Images for kids
Downpatrick Courthouse, August 2009
Courts of Northern Ireland Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.