Musicologists study all kinds of music. They study the history of music and learn about all the composers and how they developed their ideas and learned from one another. They can do this by studying music scores, or by looking for historical documents which tell us about musicians from the past. Musicologists may also study the philosophy of music (thinking about what music means).
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Historical musicology, which was traditionally the most prominent subdiscipline of musicology, studies the history of music. Central to this study is the examination of historical scores, such as this original manuscript sketch by Ludwig van Beethoven for Piano Sonata No. 28, Movement IV, Geschwind, doch nicht zu sehr und mit Entschlossenheit (Allegro), in his own handwriting. The piece was completed in 1816.
Musicology Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.