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Barbara Heinemann Landmann (January 11, 1795 – May 21, 1883) was twice a Werkzeug, or Instrument, for the Community of True Inspiration. A Werkzeug, under the influence of the gift of Inspiration, is thought by the Community to convey the word of the Lord to believers. Barbara was first a Werkzeug in Germany and in Alsace. She became a Werkzeug during the Christmas holidays of 1818 until she married George Landmann in 1823. She and her husband migrated with the Community from Germany to the Ebenezer Colonies in New York State, USA and from the Ebenezer Colonies to the Amana Colonies in Iowa. While she was in the Ebenezer Colonies, she became a Werkzeug again. In the Ebenezer Colonies and the Amana Colonies, she shared with Christian Metz the responsibilities of a Werkzeug. Christian Metz died in 1872, and Barbara became the sole Werkzeug until she died, at the age of 88. Her testimonies continue to be read aloud during the Community's religious services.

Charles Nordhoff visits the Amana Colonies, 1874

In 1874 Charles Nordhoff, gathering materials for The Communistic Societies of the United States (Nordhoff, 1875), visited the Amana Colonies in Iowa. He reports:

The society has at this time 1450 members; owns about 25,000 acres of land; lives on this land in seven different small towns; carries on agriculture and manufactures of several kinds, and is highly prosperous. Its members are all Germans. The base of its organization is religion; they are pietists; and their religious head, at present a woman, is supposed by them to speak by direct inspiration of God. Hence they call themselves "Inspirationists."

The religious head whom Nordhoff met was Barbara Heinemann Landmann, 80 at the time. Each of the seven towns mentioned by Nordhoff consisted of a single congregation of Inspirationists. The only non-Inspirationists in any of the towns were the hired hands, who were sometimes given a place to stay. The seven towns were within a few hours journey from each other, so it was not difficult for Barbara to visit them all.

The geographic arrangement of congregations had not always been so convenient for the Inspirationists. During their earlier years in Europe, some congregations might be several days' journey apart. Their separation might lead them to differences of opinion about the authority of those who claimed to be inspired. A congregation was usually a minority within a village, and an unpopular one. Because of dissension among the congregations and persecution by outsiders, Barbara's early years with the Inspirationists were tumultuous, unlike the harmonious situation in America.

Barbara joins the Inspirationists

The year before Nordhoff's visit, Barbara had dictated to Gottlieb Scheuner, a Community historian, the story of her early years, from her birth to the end of her first service as a Werkzeug, at the age of 28. Scheuner says that she declined to write the story herself because of her advanced age and her lack of writing skill.

Her story begins with her birth.

I was the child of a poor man and was born in Leitersweiler in Southern Alsace on January 11 in 1795. My father's name was Peter Heinemann. In my early youth I very much wanted to learn to read and write. However, this did not please my parents, who maintained I should soon apply myself to becoming a worker. Out of necessity, this is what I did. From the time I was nine years old until the year 1813, or until my 18th year, I was employed mainly as a wool spinner. Then there was war and the factory closed. I found work as a maid. . . . After some time, I came to work in a large Gasthaus [restaurant, inn or tavern] in Sulz, which is about 15 minutes from the town where I was born. Here I received a good wage and could learn much. . . . I was well-liked and valued by my employers because I was always cheerful, untiring, faithful and hard-working. I earned quite a sum of money, for, in addition to my yearly wage, I received a good amount in gratuities [Trinkgeld or tips]. However, I did not keep this for myself but gave it to my father. (Scheuner, 1873)

Bach (1971) says that Barbara was the second daughter of Peter and Anna Heinemann. In her account to Scheuner, Barbara does not mention her older sister. Of her mother, she says only that her mother agreed with her father that Barbara should not go to school.

Barbara says that she was born in Leiterswiller; but later in her account she says that her father's home was in Hermerswiller. The two villages are a mile apart.

When she was 22, and working at the Gasthaus, Barbara experienced a sudden darkening of her mood.

Many nights, while other slept, I would sit alone in the inn for hours because it was my duty to wait for the mail coach. . . . One night, as I was sitting alone expecting my thoughts to follow their usual happy course, my joy was abruptly taken from me and a feeling of deep sorrow overcame my entire being. (Scheuner, 1873)

She said she felt that she was too engrossed in fleeting joys and that she did not know God. After a time she left the Gasthaus and moved back to her father's house in Hermersweiler in order to be undisturbed while examining her "inner promptings." She attended church services, but held back when it was time to take communion. She felt unworthy. It seemed to her that a mighty conversion must occur before a human being could take communion.

Hoping that old people, who were closer to eternity, could help her, she visited old grandmothers. Finally one of them told her, "Your appear to be a Pietist." Barbara had never heard of Pietists. She became eager to know such people. The woman told her of a Pietist, a woman living nearby in Sulz. Barbara went to see the woman in Sulz. When Barbara asked if she could join the woman's prayer group, the woman said that Barbara had not yet been awakened, so the group could not take her in.

Barbara returned home dejected. After a week or so, she had a vision as she slept.

I suddenly heard an extraordinarily strong and powerful voice which penetrated me completely. Immediately I experienced a warm feeling and the distinct impression that this was God's voice and that He had heard my prayers. This comforted and refreshed me and my oppressed spirit was calmed. Then, as I was trying to determine where the voice was coming from, I saw three suns of exceptional clarity. It was as if one sun was continually arising from out of another and out of this came the voice which I had heard. In a loving tone, this voice now instructed me as follows: "Oh, mortal, be constantly aware of your mortality; live as you, when you die, would have wished to live." (Scheuner, 1873)

This message stirred her powerfully, and she said "I promise and surrender myself to God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit. I will serve, love and honor Him. I will follow and cling to Him." Then in her vision the suns experienced great joy and satisfaction and made a movement signifying approval.

She awoke reluctantly.

She returned to the woman in Sulz, and spoke of her vision. The woman said that Barbara was now awakened, and could come with her to a prayer meeting of the Community of True Inspiration.

Werkzeuge convey the Word of the Lord

Sources for the history of the Community of True Inspiration include Noé (1904), Perkins (1891), and Shambaugh (1908).

The Community had been founded 103 years earlier, in 1714, by Eberhard Ludwig Gruber, a Lutheran minister, and Johann Friedrich Rock, the son of a Lutheran minister. Together they had studied the writings of the German mystics and Pietists from the 16th and 17th centuries. They were particularly drawn to a branch of Pietists which arose during the last quarter of the 17th century and whose followers are said to have "prophesied like the prophets of old."

Gruber and Rock believed in present-day Inspiration. In the Community they founded, divine guidance is thought to come through individuals who are endowed by the Lord with the miraculous gift of Inspiration. These individuals are called Werkzeuge (Instruments). The testimony of a Werkzeug is often written down by a Scribe. Testimonies so recorded have the same authority and almost the same importance as the Bible.

Gruber and Rock, with other early members of the Community, traveled through Europe, preaching. Some villages welcomed them; there they established small congregations of Inspirationists. Other villages, including Zurich, turned them away.

In 1717 Johann Adam Gruber [the son of Eberhard Ludwig Gruber] and H. S. Gleim went into a church at Zürich and preached to the people. This bold step so enraged the clergyman, who feared that the members would leave the church in which he labored, and go over to the Inspirationists, that he caused them to be arrested. . . . They were first put in the pillory where they were exposed to the cutting comments of the mob. They were then driven through the streets, each prisoner receiving sixty-two lashes; the blood from their backs ran down the streets of Zürich, but still the stern clergy and thousands of spectators followed the procession, and cheered in derision whenever the prisoners groaned from the pain inflicted by the lash. (Perkins, 1891)

Bewegungen accompany the testimonies of the Werkzeuge

The early Inspirationists delivered testimony delivered during a trance or shaking spell called Bewegung.

Mackinet (1749), who traveled as a Scribe with Gruber and other early Werkzeuge, wrote that Bewegungen varied with the testimony. When Werkzeuge were proclaiming God's judgment and chastisement,

Their bearing was majestic, their Bewegungen were strong, and their voices resounded like thunder. . . . However, when they spoke of God's love and the nobility of His children, the Bewegungen were mild and accompanied by a graceful demeanor. (Mackinet, 1749)

Mackinet goes into more detail about Bewegungen.

The Werkzeug or prophet first senses an innerly calming and beneficent passion which increases gradually and finally manifests itself throughout the entire body, consequently resulting in heavy breathing through the nose, trembling of the entire body and finally in powerful bodily movements, often accompanied by kicking movements of the legs and feet, clapping of the hands and shaking of the head. Through these Bewegungen the prophet is prepared or fitted to fearlessly proclaim the Lord's Word just as It is born within him. Sometimes It is issued syllable by syllable, sometimes word by word, often very slowly, other times very rapidly. The Werkzeug has no alternative for he submits to being a passive instrument in the hand of the Lord. (Mackinet, 1749)

Mackinet and Gruber, after a night of preaching in a synagogue in Prague, went for a walk on the frozen Moldau. There they met two rabbis. They asked the rabbis if the prophets of old among the people of Israel also proclaimed the Lord's Word through such strange bodily movements. The rabbis answered:

The bodily movement is not considered strange to us, for this was a sure sign among the old prophets and whoever spoke without such bodily movements was not considered a true prophet. It is for this reason--in recognitions of the early prophets--that we always sway back and forth when we sing our Psalms. (Mackinet, 1749)

Bewegungen, whether a trance or a shaking fit, continued to distinguish the utterances of the Werkzeuge until the time of Nordhoff's visit. Nordhoff says that Christian Metz, a Werkzeug who died seven years before Nordhoff's visit, once shook for an hour before an utterance.

The Community rejects false Werkzeuge

The Community considers that not everyone who claims to be a Werkzeug actually is. Gruber and Rock acknowledged the existence of false Inspiration.

Gruber (1715) reports that the first false spirit made its appearance, "with false convulsions and false utterances," in a boy of 14 who thought he was moved by the Spirit. Johanna Melchior, an early member of the Community, denounced the false spirit "with great certainty and convincing power."

Gruber describes his own encounter with a false spirit.

I was befallen by an extraordinary shaking of the head and shivering of the mouth; and it has been proven a hundred times that such was not without significance, but indeed a true warning. (Gruber, 1715).

Werkzeuge believed to be false continued to be a problem for as long as the Community had Werkzeuge. Many years after the Community had settled in Iowa, Christian Metz, one of their Werkzeuge, writes:

There are many presumptuous members in our Communities who are always aspiring for something. The one wants to be an Elder, and the other even a Werkzeug; and the cause of it all is self-love and a false desire of the soul. (Metz, 1849)

Shambaugh (1908) reports that from the very beginnings of the Community, it was customary to appoint a committee to examine those who spoke by Inspiration. In many instances the committee found an aspiring Werkzeug to be false, and denied them the privilege of prophesying.

The community declines and reawakens

Gruber died in 1728; Rock, in 1749. With their death, the gift of Inspiration ceased. Lacking a Werkzeug, the Community read the writings and the recorded testimonies of past Werkzeuge, especially Gruber and Rock. From the time of the Community's founding in 1714 to the death of Rock in 1749, 35 years, the Community recognized 18 Werkzeuge. During the Decline, the 67 years between the death of Rock in 1749 and the Reawakening in 1817, the Community recognized none, and lost strength.

With the Reawakening, however, during 1817 and 1818, Inspiration returned to the Community. Within two years, there arose three new Werkzeuge: Michael Krausert, Christian Metz, and Barbara Heinemann.

Michael Krausert receives the gift of inspiration, 1817

The first of the new Werkzeuge was Michael Krausert, a tailor from Strasbourg. Zuber (1981) gives us some background on Krausert.

The Strasbourg and Bischweiler congregation of Inspirationists . . . was greatly strengthened by a former minister by the name of Klein. Through him, many young people joined the congregation including Michael Krausert. Two such converts were sisters by the name of Robert whose father was a prominent tanner in Strasbourg. Krausert married one of these sisters.

The two sisters often accompanied Krausert on his journeys to various congregations of Inspirationists.

Most of the congregations visited by the new Werkzeuge were located in west-central Germany, in either a southern district or a northern district. Journeys within a district took a day or two, either by foot or by horse-drawn vehicle. Journeys between districts took several days, sometimes by boat on the Rhine or Main rivers.

Bergzabern is at the center of the southern district. Hermersweiler, where Barbara came from, is a day's journey south of Bergzabern; Bischweiler, where Krausert came from, is another day's journey south of Hermersweiler. Ronneburg is at the center of the northern district. The owners of the Ronneburg castle provided a haven for Separatist groups like the Inspirationists.

It was at Ronneburg, on September 11, 1817, that Krausert gave his first testimony: a summons to a revival of faith.

Oh, Ronneburg! Ronneburg! Where are thy former champions, the old defenders of the faith? They are no longer to be found, and effeminates dwell in the citadel. Well, then, do ye not desire to become strong? The eternal power is offered to you. (Bezeugungen, 1817).

Some of the Inspirationists rejected Krausert, saying that they had enough of testimonies; but others welcomed him.

Barbara meets Krausert

Scheuner (1873) is the primary source for the history of Barbara's first service as a Werkzeug.

It was during the Reawakening, shortly after Krausert became a Werkzeug, that Barbara Heinemann was received into the prayer meetings of the Community of True Inspiration. She became acquainted with other Sisters who attended the prayer meetings. They would often employ her in their homes for a day; there, they would talk about their faith.

The Sisters told her there was now a prophet in the Community: Michael Krausert. They promised to let her know when he would be in the vicinity. She finally met him in Sulz, in a room with many other people. She spoke with him about the thoughts which had been troubling her. His answers comforted her and convinced her that he was a man of God. After a time he sat down at a table to write. His writing was an Einsprache, an inspired written testimony, wherein the Lord indicated that He would confer on Barbara the same gift that he had conferred on Krausert.

Krausert then persuaded Barbara to accompany him and his party, including his wife and her sister, on a journey to Bergzabern. She had another vision.

I saw the heavens open and within this opening I saw a great white bird, like an eagle or a pelican, floating with wings widespread. Extending from its mouth were two burning rays. I saw Krausert standing in one of these rays, but the other ray burned upon my head quite perceptibly. . . . Within me I was told that if I became truly converted, the ray of light would encompass me just as it had Krausert. . . . Following this I experienced bodily quakings and tremblings. These were so strong that the others noticed and were astonished. However, Krausert said that this was the first step toward what was to come.

They stayed briefly in Bergzabern, then proceeded to Anweiler, a half-day's journey north, where they took part in the Sunday service. At this service, Krausert uttered an Aussprache, an inspired spoken testimony, which Barbara felt was directed to her; it seemed to be a dialog between her heart and the Savior.

Barbara receives the gift of inspiration, 1818

After this service, Krausert dismissed Barbara, and she returned to her father's house in Hermersweiler. Shortly after her return, she felt a spiritual urge to go to Sulz. She went to the home of a trusted Sister for whom she had done washing. The Sister was happy to see her; she had been praying that God would send Barbara to her, to discuss their faith, which they did, to their mutual edification.

During this visit, Barbara felt distressed by a drive within her. The drive resolved itself into a single command: "Write!" She spoke of this command to another Sister, who had come to visit. Barbara said she did not know how to write. The visiting Sister told her to try; maybe she would be able to write down what was necessary. Barbara wrote down single letters and syllables, as best she could.

Unfortunately, no one could decipher what Barbara had written. The visiting Sister then wrote out the words that Barbara remembered. Now they could make some sense of it. It was an Einsprache, about a tree with many branches and leaves, blossoms and fruit, which Barbara did not yet understand. Barbara felt that God's will had been served. The Sister said, "I can believe that you were distressed, for now I know the cause."

Barbara took the paper home. There she felt a spiritual urge to take the paper to Bergzabern. On her arrival in Bergzabern, she discovered that she had just missed Krausert, who had proceeded to Anweiler. The next day, she caught up with him, and showed him the paper. He sent her to a Brother's house, while he read the paper to the people who were assembled with him. These people did not want to consider anything she had written. They regarded Barbara as an inferior, an uneducated country maid. They ignored Krausert, who told them that the writing was the word of the Lord, against which he could do nothing. Because of this opposition, Krausert sent Barbara back to her father's house.

Upon her return, her father sent her on an errand to Bischweiler. She was happy to go, and she stayed there for some time. On her return to Hermersweiler, a messenger came in the night and asked her to come quickly to Bergzabern. The messenger said that the people were suffering great distress because they had been so rude to her. She set out in the morning. When she arrived, the people who had rejected her now welcomed her joyously. They asked her to stay with them. During her stay, she was moved to deliver several Einsprache.

Barbara had agreed to begin working as a maid for a Sister in Bischweiler after Christmas, 1818. As Christmas approached, she told Krausert that she had to leave. Krausert told her to stay. He said that another way would be found for her to earn a living. On the first day of Christmas, Krausert presented an Aussprache in a prayer meeting. As he spoke, Barbara was powerfully seized. She felt that she could have spoken the very words that Krausert was speaking; but she resisted her promptings and uttered nothing. Krausert realized what was happening to her.

On the second day of Christmas, Krausert declared that he would be unable to attend the prayer meeting because he was ill; he retired to the next room. Now Barbara felt a force so powerful that she could resist it no longer; she delivered her first Aussprache. When Krausert heard her speaking, he entered the meeting room, immediately became inspired, and confirmed her testimony. He further testified that Barbara was released from her worldly service as maid because the Lord was taking her into His service.

Now a Werkzeug, Barbara undertook to learn how to read. The Bible was her textbook. She was happy when at last she could follow the Holy Scriptures. They made a profound impression on her; much of the language of her testimonies is that of the Bible, particularly the Old Testament.

Barbara is arrested for the first time

While still in Bergzabern with Kreutzer, Barbara suffered her first arrest. The town's pastor urged the authorities to take action against the Inspirationists. The authorities sent spies to a prayer meeting of the Inspirationists. Before the meeting, at supper with a family of Inspirationists, Barbara became inspired and testified that there would be spies at that night's prayer meeting. Barbara herself did not go to the meeting. After the meeting, several who had attended came and asked why she had not come. They said that there had been two aristocratic gentlemen there. Barbara explained that they were spies. She showed them the testimony she had delivered earlier that evening. They were astounded.

Barbara sensed that the houses of the Inspirationists were about to be searched. She had the people put all their books and testimonies in a sack, which they hid under a tub in the basement. This was scarcely done when the house was surrounded by soldiers, policemen, and townspeople. They searched the house. Several times they turned over the tub, but they left the sack undisturbed.

Although the search was fruitless, many of the Inspirationists, including Barbara, were arrested and taken to the town hall. All of Krausert's luggage was confiscated.

Christian Metz came to visit them in the town hall. Metz was the third Werkzeug of the Reawakening. This was the first time that Barbara met him.

Unlike Barbara, Metz was born within the Community of True Inspiration. One of his grandfathers, Jacob Metz, was a principal member of one of the congregations established by Gruber and Rock. Christian Metz was a carpenter in Ronneburg when he heard Krausert's first testimony, "Oh, Ronneburg. . . ." Upon hearing this summons, Christian Metz experienced a thorough revival; soon after, he received the gift of Inspiration.

From Bergzabern, Barbara and the other arrestees were transported to Landau for imprisonment. The women were put into a special jail, for women only. To the women already in the prison, the Community members said that they were being imprisoned for good deeds, not for bad.

Among the arrestees were Krausert's wife and his wife's sister, who were extremely distressed. That night Barbara had a vision in which she saw that the two women would be released the next day. Sure enough, they were released the next day, as was Krausert himself. Krausert and his party returned to Ronneburg. Barbara, however, had to remain under arrest for eight more days. Fortunately, the town councilman sympathized with her, and had her serve the rest of her sentence as a guest in his own house.

When the eight days were over, she demanded a hearing, to learn why she had been held captive. Several doctors came to the hearing, to examine her concerning her Bewegungen. In their presence, she experienced a strong bodily trembling and spoke out a testimony. Everyone was startled. Her testimony included a denunciation of the pastor at Bergzabern who had instigated the actions against the Community.

She returned to Bergzabern, to general rejoicing among the Inspirationists. All this occurred in January 1819, one month after Barbara's first Aussprache.

Krausert shows off Barbara

Before Krausert left Landau with his wife and her sister, while Barbara was still under arrest, he asked to see Barbara. While he was waiting for her to be brought to him, he got into a dispute with another man who was in the room with him. The man claimed that Inspiration was a sickness arising from nervous infirmity. As Barbara approached, Krausert pointed at her and asked whether she appeared to be a nervous sort. The man fell silent at the sight of her.

The Lord manifests His Favor

From Bergzabern, Barbara journeyed to Bischweiler. There, during a Sunday morning service, she fell into a trance that lasted all day, from 9:00 in the morning until 10:00 at night. During this trance her entire testimony was in rhyme. Whoever came to her and gave her a hand in friendship was given a Word of encouragement and blessing. A doubter who came forward to give his hand was instantly made aware of the truth. He remained with the Community until his death from consumption.

Krausert sent Christian Metz and another Brother to Bischweiler, to bring Barbara to Ronneburg. Part of their journey to Ronneburg was a river voyage. Their ship was filled with musicians and revelers who would not let them sleep. Barbara experienced a Bewegung. Her companions prepared to write down her testimony, but she wrote nothing. In the villages around Ronneburg Barbara and Krausert presented many testimonies, sometimes two or three a day.

Humbling of Jacob Mörschel

Barbara and Krausert sometimes met opposition, however.

Jacob Mörschel came to Ronneburg and spoke out against Krausert. When Barbara returned to Ronneburg from a nearby village, Jacob questioned her closely concerning her awakening. He regretted his doubts that evening, however, when Barbara delivered an Aussprache, speaking rapidly and in rhyme, directed against Jacob.

One day he set out from Ronneburg to Liebloos, a nearby village, accompanying a visiting Brother back to his home. Barbara felt impelled to join them. Seeing that Jacob wanted to talk privately with the visiting Brother, Barbara walked a distance ahead of them. When Jacob whistled, signaling that it was time for the three of them to come together again, Barbara waited for them under a tree. When they joined her, she went into Inspiration and delivered an Aussprache. It was a reply to all that they had been discussing. They began to write down the testimony, but they had only a small supply of paper. When they were about to run out, another Brother came quickly across the field, bringing more paper. The Aussprache concluded with the promise of a blessed rain that would make everything fruitful. At once it started to rain, wetting the writing paper.

Humbling of Peter Hammerschmidt

Opposition did not end with the conversion of Jacob Mörschel; the Elders in Birstein, 50 miles (80 km) northeast of Ronneburg, refused to accept Krausert. Peter Hammerschmidt, who came from Birstein, suggested to Krausert that the new Werkzeuge could reach an alliance with the Elders of Birstein if they all became better acquainted. Hammerschmidt asked Krausert for permission to bring Barbara to Liebloos, between Ronneburg and Birstein, to meet with some of the Elders. Krausert agreed. In Liebloos, the Elders tried to convince Barbara to oppose Krausert. Because of her inexperience, she did not know what to do. Sensing the problem, the Brethren at Ronneburg sent her a message, telling her to return immediately, without Hammerschmidt. She, however, asked him to accompany her, since she needed him as a witness to what she had seen and heard.

Back in Ronneburg, Christian Metz came to her room and told her to have nothing more to do with Hammerschmidt. Then Hammerschmidt came and urged her to oppose Metz. Metz returned. He took Barbara to where he was living and gave her some of his books to read. She read eagerly, and they discussed what she was reading. She became inspired and delivered a promise to Metz.

She was suddenly impelled to go to Krausert, who was just then speaking out a reprimand against Hammerschmidt. As soon as she entered the room, she too became inspired and spoke out, alternately, with Krausert. Hammerschmidt asked forgiveness.

Krausert is timid

Krausert now journeyed to Birstein, accompanied by Barbara.

The Prince of Birstein was sick at the time. Barbara felt impelled to write a testimony for the Prince, promising him a return to good health and God's blessing if he were to support and freely acknowledge the truth. She asked Krausert to give the Prince this testimony. Krausert would have had an excellent opportunity to do so, because the Prince requested his presence at his bedside and talked with him for a long while. Krausert, however, failed to deliver Barbara's testimony. Barbara thought him timid.

While at Birstein, Barbara had difficulties with three members of Krausert's party: his wife, her sister, and J. G. Ciriaci. These three were in charge of copying testimonies. They complained because Barbara was unable to help them. Barbara countered by saying that everyone must answer his own calling. The three became furious. Suddenly it seemed as if an invisible hand struck a mighty blow upon the table where they were sitting. Then Krausert entered the room. He paced up and down repeating: "This is yet another of the enemy's powers!" Then he took Barbara with him into the room where the Brethren were assembled. Krausert became inspired and spoke out concerning the activities of the enemy. Barbara then became inspired, and spoke out as well. While they spoke, alternately, Christian Metz became inspired and wrote a testimony on the same subject. The Brethren wondered at all this, whereupon the three members of Krausert's party acknowledged that the testimonies were directed at them, because they had treated Barbara wrongly.

In spite of their confessions, Krausert decided that Barbara should be separated from them. He sent her to a farm about 45 minutes from Birstein and told her to stay there until she was summoned.

After a few days at the farm, Barbara saw Krausert and others from his party hurrying toward her. They said that a persecution movement was beginning in Birstein. Barbara was given to know that this was not true, and she frankly said as much. Krausert became uncertain and sent Hammerschmidt back to Birstein to investigate. Back in Birstein, Hammerschmidt found no sign of an impending persecution. The Prince had issued a command to his subjects, but it had nothing to do with the Inspirationists. Hammerschmidt returned to the farm and reported his findings.

Barbara now had reason to suspect that Krausert was fallible.

Krausert returned to Birstein the next day, Barbara now with him. When they arrived, they found that the congregation no longer wanted anything to do with Krausert, because of his timidity. Barbara suggested that they hold a prayer meeting; but the congregation was disinclined. However, the congregation held a formal worship service soon after, which Barbara attended but Krausert did not. At this service she delivered an Aussprache, telling the congregation of the fate that awaited those who persisted in error. She told them that they would now be given a preview of the torments of hell that awaited the unrepentant. Immediately Peter Hammerschmidt fell into a seizure. His face turned green and blue, and he began to foam at the mouth. He shook dreadfully for a time, and groaned while flailing about. When his seizure was over, Barbara continued her Aussprache. The congregation was moved, and the worship service continued in a pleasant manner. In the months to come, however, the congregation regressed, and they met the fate that had been foretold in Barbara's Aussprache.

The Elders of Neuwied reject Barbara

Jacob Mörschel remained convinced of the godliness of the Reawakening, but he now wanted to return home to Neuwied, about 150 miles (240 km) west of Ronneburg. He asked Barbara to join his party. She agreed. The last part of the journey was by sailboat on the Rhine. Jacob estimated that they would arrive in Neuwied at nightfall. Barbara thought that an arrival at nightfall would please Jacob, because he did not want to be seen in the company of Barbara and other believers in the Reawakening. Barbara experienced a spiritual disclosure: they would not arrive that evening, but rather at noon the next day. A strong unfavorable wind then arose and drove the ship aground, where it remained overnight. The next day they arrived at Neuwied at noon, the time that had been revealed to her. Jacob acknowledged that the delay had occurred because of his intellectual pride.

Jacob Mörschel had reason to fear arrival in broad daylight; the Neuwied Inspirationists were skeptical about the Reawakening.

Soon after the arrival of Barbara and the others, the Neuwied Elders met privately to discuss whether they should admit Barbara to their worship service. During their meeting, Barbara, in another house, fell into a trance and had a vision. In this vision, she saw the Elders reaching a decision to reject her. When she came out of her trance, she told Jacob Mörschel and the others in the room what she had seen. Early the next day a messenger brought Jacob a letter from the Elders. The man started to prepare Jacob with a long explanation, but Jacob cut him off, saying he already knew what was in the letter. The messenger was amazed when Jacob told him how he knew. The messenger felt kindly toward the visitors and warned them to leave before the Elders asked the local government to take action against them. They left two days later.

Jacob Mörschel accompanied them for a while. When he was about to leave them, Barbara delivered a testimony of encouragement.

With her remaining companions, Barbara journeyed to other congregations, which welcomed them. There Barbara delivered further testimonies. They made their way back to Bergzabern, where Barbara had delivered her first Aussprache. From Bergzabern, Barbara went to Anweiler in order to rest.

Michael Krausert banishes Barbara

But rest was to elude her. She received a spiritual command to journey directly to Bischweiler. There she found Christian Metz very happy to see her. Immediately he informed her that there was a problem with Krausert, and that he, Metz, had delivered a testimony against him. Barbara told Metz to say no more, until she could speak to Krausert herself. Later that day she delivered a testimony saying that she and Metz should listen to Krausert, as long as his instructions did not go against their beliefs; since they had been placed in his service.

Krausert arrived in Bischweiler that same evening. He told Barbara that he and Metz had had a misunderstanding during their recent journey. The next morning he sent her and Metz off to separate rooms. When they were gone, Krausert told those remaining that Inspiration had now ceased. There would be no more testimonies.

Word of this reached Metz. He came to Barbara's room and told her what had happened. He said that he would obey Krausert's command, and he advised Barbara to do the same. She, however, was not ready to do so. She felt that the Lord was still working mightily in her.

Through Metz, Barbara asked Krausert if she might have a drink of water. Krausert was shocked when he learned that she was still in her room. He immediately summoned her. When she came to him, he tried to persuade her to give up her Inspiration, but she would not.

The next day Krausert and his party made ready to return to Ronneburg. He said that Barbara could accompany them if she yielded, but she did not. They left without her.

Not long after, a member of Krausert's party returned with a message from Krausert. Krausert had received a disclosure informing him that Barbara was pregnant. She was to be banished from the Community and was to return to her father's house.

So it was that she returned once again to Hermersweiler. Her banishment took place in the summer of 1819, less than a year after her first Aussprache, in Bergzabern.

Barbara challenges Michael Krausert

Her banishment did not last long. She found supporters. One day, as she was preparing the noon meal in her father's house, she was made aware that guests would be coming, and that she should prepare more food. Soon two Brothers arrived at her father's house. They had heard what Krausert said about her, but they did not believe it; they wanted to find out the truth. When they finished eating, they all went outside. Barbara left everything as it was in order to walk a short way with them. She expected to be back in half an hour, but she did not return for another year.

While she was walking with them, she received a spiritual command to go to Bergzabern with them. While she was in Bergzabern., a letter for the congregation arrived from Krausert. He said that they should decide whether to believe him or Barbara. Enclosed with his letter was a testimony containing harsh words about Barbara.

While still in Bergzabern, she received a spiritual summons to go to Anweiler. The Bergzabern congregation did not want her to go, because the Anweiler congregation had rejected her. She went nonetheless. In Anweiler, the Elder Abraham Noé asked why she had come. She said she wanted to read the letter that he had received from Krausert that day. Noé said he had received no such letter. Then Barbara told him what the letter contained. Amazed, he brought her the letter. He was now convinced of Krausert's deceitfulness, and he came over to Barbara's side.

The next day, through a testimony, Barbara received instructions to proceed to Ronneburg. Noé accompanied her. As they approached Ronneburg, they met a man who advised them not to come, since everyone there was on Krausert's side. When they arrived at Ronneburg, everyone was afraid to greet them. Still, Barbara found refuge in the home of one of the Elders.

Now the struggle began. Krausert entered the home, "as friendly as an angel," and said that it was right that she had come. He said he had wanted to write to her, in order to invite her to come. He tried for a reconciliation, but she asked him why he wanted to become reconciled with the type of woman that he had described in his letters.

Several more Brethren assembled. They began to recognize Krausert's unrighteousness. They asked Barbara for a testimony regarding him. She said she would not pass judgment upon him. She said that they should instead read what Gruber had written, in order to learn how to deal with such a matter.

Gruber (1720) had admitted the possibility that a Werkzeug could lose the gift of Inspiration. The gift was "a precious attribute" that could be retained only through "careful guarding, praying, obedience and endurance." If the Werkzeug should try to be himself the mover and doer in this work of Inspiration, his utterances would be confused and incorrect. Such utterances "can be tested only by those who possess the eye of simplicity and the spirit of discrimination."

The people in the room reached a decision. Krausert was to leave the Community for a time and go to a place of his own choosing. After a time of quiet exile, through soul-searching and compliance, he could be re-admitted to the Community. His wife and her sister could remain in Ronneburg. The women rejected this offer, however, and left with Krausert. Together they went to Bischweiler, where they were accepted and remained for a time. Then they moved 20 miles (32 km) south to a home near Strasbourg. There Krausert's wife and her sister soon died.

Barbara regretted the departure of Krausert. He had been her guide. During their visits to various communities, the Lord had granted many blessings through the two of them. Now their bond had been "severed by the tempter's might."

Abraham Noé turns her away

After Krausert became discredited, many Inspirationists became confused and fell away. Nevertheless, The Lord found others to do His work. A testimony presented through Barbara stated that Philip Mörschel was to watch over congregations in the northern district, around Ronneburg, and Abraham Noé was to watch over congregations in the southern district, around Bergzabern.

Philip Mörschel and Barbara journeyed from Ronneburg to meet with Noé in Anweiler. Noé protested that he no longer wanted to pay for such visits. He offered Barbara a job as a maid in his house. He said that when she felt moved by Inspiration, she could come to his room and tell him about it. Philip and Barbara left Anweiler and returned to Ronneburg. Later, Noé withdrew from the Community altogether.

Philip Mörschel and Barbara made one more journey, to Schwarzenau, about 50 miles (80 km) southeast of Ronneburg. This visit was difficult and distasteful for both of them. After this, Philip made no further journeys; he stayed in Ronneburg.

Philip Mörschel's burning of her testimonies

Back in Ronneburg, resting from their journeys, Philip Mörschel and Barbara often sat quietly together. In the room where they met, there was a large chest full of books. Mörschel himself had not read most of these books; many of them had been put there by his forefathers. On examining the books, Mörschel and Barbara found many volumes of Petersen's writings, which had been written both before and after his enlightenment. In the books written before his enlightenment, there were errors. For example, when Barbara opened one such book, she saw: "Whoever does not receive a baptism by water, cannot attain salvation." Some of the other books in the chest had been written against the Community of True Inspiration back in Rock's time.

Philip Mörschel and Barbara did not know what to do with the books. One night Barbara had a dream: Petersen's ghost said that the books should be burned. The ghost said that gold and silver would not burn. In her dream, Barbara saw Petersen's books laid upon the fire, and a quantity of gold and silver flowed forth from them. As she awakened from her dream, Mörschel came to her room and told her to get up; he had received instructions to burn all the books in the chest, which they did.

Then Mörschel went even further. He said that Krausert's testimonies had been tainted by Krausert's own ideas; therefore Mörschel thought it best to burn all of Krausert's testimonies, including the testimonies that had been presented through Krausert and Barbara. Barbara protested; but Mörschel said that he who had granted these testimonies could also grant new testimonies, so it would do no harm to burn the old testimonies. This they did.

Now Barbara tried to suppress any urge to write or speak a testimony. However, after suppressing this urge for half a day, she decided to write a testimony but keep it to herself. Mörschel, however, noticed what she had done, and told her to give him the testimony. She asked if it too would be burned, but he replied: "No, this will be Number One. From this moment on, a new era has begun."

Philip Mörschel banishes Barbara

As Abraham Noé began to withdraw from the Community, Peter Mook took responsibility for the congregations of Bergzabern and Edenkoben. Edenkoben is about 20 miles (32 km) northeast of Bergzabern. Barbara now spent her time with these two congregations.

Unfortunately, the local government of Edenkoben began persecuting the Inspirationists. Ordinary citizens started to insult and mistreat them. Barbara was taken into custody at various times and finally banished from the area. She returned to Ronneburg.

On Barbara's return to Ronneburg, she found that Philip Mörschel did not welcome her. Without telling her, he left Ronneburg and went to Liebloos. From there he sent her a message telling her to go to Bischweiler. Without knowing the reason, she went. At the same time, he asked other Elders in the Community to come to Ronneburg for a conference. At this conference he said that Barbara had been exiled to Bischweiler because of unspecified sins. He said that she would stay there.

Barbara was in Bischweiler for some time before she learned what Philip had done. When she found out, she felt impelled to return to Ronneburg. In Ronneburg, however, she discovered that she was no longer accepted. Considered an evildoer, she was forced to leave immediately, alone and on foot. She set out on a journey back to Bischweiler.

Barbara receives a proposal of marriage

Near the end of the first day of her journey, she arrived at a town she had visited before. She was hoping to spend the night there with people she knew. Walking down the street toward their house, she saw a man who seemed to be waiting for her. He asked her what her eventual destination was. She said Worms, which she hope to reach the next day. He said she could get there that night if she rode with him in one of his wagons. He was traveling with two wagons: a cargo wagon loaded with wine; and a passenger wagon loaded with people. She said she was unfamiliar with Worms and did not want to arrive there late at night. He said that he would see to it that she found good lodging and food. Thus she was persuaded and went with him.

On the way to Worms, he told her that he wanted to marry her. He said he was a widower, looking for a good woman to be his wife. She asked him how he could make such a proposal to someone he didn't know. He said that as soon as he saw her, he knew that she was the right person for him. He told her she could ask anyone in the passenger wagon about his reputation.

They arrived in Worms late at night. The man stopped at a very reputable inn, called to the innkeeper, introduced Barbara, and told the innkeeper to give her the best accommodations and to provide her with everything she requested. He said he would pay for it all in the morning. The innkeeper now regarded Barbara with extreme kindness. When Barbara was left alone with the innkeeper, she told him that she wanted nothing but a drink of water and a room in which to spend the night. She asked him to give her the bill at once, so she could continue her journey the first thing in the morning.

At dawn she arose and left the city. Afraid of being overtaken, she hurried along the road to Bergzabern.

Peter Mook turns her away.

After walking for 15 hours, she arrived in Bergzabern, at the home of Peter Mook's sisters. They gave her water to cool her feet and a cup of broth to restore her strength. They put her to bed. Then they went next door to Peter Mook's house and told him of Barbara's arrival. He, however, had received strict orders from Philip Mörschel not to welcome Barbara. Greatly disconcerted, the sisters came to Barbara's bedroom and told her that they were not permitted to keep her. They suggested that she inquire about a room at an inn. Barbara was on the streets once again. Since it was now midnight, all the inns were closed. She walked out of the town and spent the night in a meadow, sitting under a willow tree.

She finally reached Bischweiler, riding in the wagon of a man she had recognized. He took her to his house, where his wife greeted her joyously. Barbara warned them that she had been banished, and that she could only serve as a maid to one of the Sisters. The wife took Barbara by the hand and said she did not want Barbara to serve as a maid. The wife then showed Barbara to a room in their house. Barbara stayed with them for a time.

Barbara challenges Philip Mörschel

In the fall of 1820, some of the Inspirationists began to turn against Philip Mörschel. Peter Mook, who was responsible for the congregations at Bergzabern and Edenkoben, received from Philip Mörschel a letter instructing him to accept Philip's authority over all the congregations. This Mook declined to do. He now told his sisters to welcome Barbara if she should come their way again.

In early 1821, Barbara felt impelled to go with Peter Mook to Ronneburg. Philip Mörschel responded by declaring that no one who accepted Barbara's testimonies could enter Ronneburg. She stayed instead with allies in a nearby village. Philip sent her a message saying that she should not dare to set foot in his house.

In July 1821, Barbara produced a testimony that referred to Mörschel as the "black stone of Ronneburg." A few days later, she was directed to deliver this testimony to Philip herself. With several Brethren, she went to see Philip in Liebloos. On the way, they encountered Philip coming out of the forest and onto the road. She and the Brethren recognized this meeting as an indication of God's guidance. One of the Brethren handed the testimony to Philip. He read it at once and said he knew this was God's Word to him; but he wanted to have nothing more to do with it.

Some time later Barbara felt impelled to write another testimony directed to Philip, which she was to deliver herself. She found him in his garden. When he saw her, he began to tremble. She gave him the testimony. He said it was God's Word as surely as there was a God; but he would not accept it.

This was the last time that she spoke to him. He retired to Liebloos. He never returned to Ronneburg.

Barbara declines Peter Mook's offer of a room

After Mörschel's fall from grace, Peter Mook became the First Elder, assuming responsibility for all the congregations. Barabara continued to journey to various congregations, sometimes accompanied by Peter Mook and sometimes by other Brethren, including Christian Metz. Peter Mook offered her a room in his house, where she could stay when she was not on a journey. She accepted gratefully. She soon found, however, that the offer was for his own benefit. This brought her into temptation, so that later, after she had returned from yet another journey, she rented a room in Bischweiler.

Before long Peter Mook came to Bischweiler and told her that it was God's will that she return to him. He promised that everything would be better. She returned with him; but she found that everything was the same.

Barbara marries George Landmann and loses the gift, 1823

Barbara tells Scheuner:

So I fell ever deeper into temptation, and finally this resulted in my marriage to George Landmann in the year 1823. With that, we were banished from the Community. (Scheuner, 1873)

Marriage did not always result in banishment. Kreutzer, we have seen, was married. Nordhoff (1879) says that Metz, at his death in 1867, left a daughter in the Amana community. Shambaugh (1908) says that E. L. Gruber himself had a son who accompanied him on his journeys and who specialized in the detection of false Werkzeuge.

Marriage could result in banishment, however, if it was opposed by the Elders. Christian Metz (1822) says that the enemy tempted Barbara with a desire to marry George Landmann, but the Lord showed both her and the Brethren that this step was against His holy will. In spite of what the Lord showed them, Barbara and George married a year later. The result was banishment.

Barbara's first service as a Werkzeug thus lasted less than five years, from her first Aussprache at Bergzabern late in 1818 to her marriage to George Landmann in 1823.

Barbara and George remain true to the community

Though banished, Barbara and George held fast to the beliefs of the Inspirationists. Barbara tells Scheuner that she and George went to Strasbourg to appear before a court that was hearing a complaint against the Bischweiler congregation. Witnesses were asked to swear that they would tell the truth. Barbara and George refused, holding to the Inspirationists' prohibition against oath-taking. When challenged, Heinemann cited the teachings of Jesus.

Again, ye have heard that it hath been said by them of old time, Thou shalt not forswear thyself, but shalt perform unto the Lord thine oaths: But I say unto you, Swear not at all; neither by heaven; for it is God's throne: Nor by the earth; for it is his footstool: neither by Jerusalem; for it is the city of the great King. Neither shalt thou swear by thy head, because thou canst not make one hair white or black. But let your communication be, Yea, yea; Nay, nay: for whatsoever is more than these cometh of evil. (Matthew, 5:33-37).

Strasbourg had a statute saying that anyone who refused to take the oath would be fined heavily and imprisoned for three months. After Barbara cited Scripture, the judges retired. When they returned, they read from a paper on which they had written that the punishment would not apply to those witnesses who refused to swear an oath because of the teachings of Jesus. Rather, their affirmative word would be accepted in place of an oath.

Barbara rejoiced in this victory. She told Scheuner that the Lord struck down a Community member who had urged her to take the oath.

He was no longer well when he left the courtroom, and was not even able to return to his home and family, rather, like a madman, came to a miserable end there in Strasbourg. (Scheuner, 1873)

Following such demonstrations of faith, Barbara and George were re-admitted to the Community of True Inspiration.

Here ends the Short Narration, the story that Barbara told Scheuner about her early years.

Barbara retires for 26 years

Barbara lost the gift of Inspiration when she was 28. She did not receive it again until she was 54. During the 26 years between gifts, she lived in relative obscurity. Since she was no longer a Werkzeug, Scribes longer recorded what she said and did..

At the time that Barbara dictated her Short Narration to Scheuner, she seems to have had misgivings about her marriage, since she refers to it as the result of falling "ever deeper into temptation." The marriage was probably childless; neither Nordhoff (1875) nor Shambaugh (1908) mentions any progeny. We do not know how George made a living. Before the marriage, he was a schoolmaster; but Shambaugh (1908) says that the Inspirationists often expelled a schoolmaster from his post if he married.

Barbara and George stayed together for the rest of their lives. Though Inspirationists deplored marriage, they regarded the step, once taken, as irrevocable. Bach (1971) says that Barbara and George journeyed together to the Ebenezer Colonies in New York and then to the Amana Colonies in Iowa, where they remained until their deaths in their 80s.

The Inspirationists gather in Hesse, 1823–1843

Shambaugh (1908) is the primary source for the history of the Community following Barbara's loss of the gift of Inspiration.

After both Michael Krausert and Barbara Heinemann Landmann lost the gift of Inspiration, Christian Metz was left as the sole Werkzeug for the Community. He led the Inspirationists, in both spiritual and secular matters, for the next 44 years, from Barbara's marriage and banishment in 1823 to his own death in 1867.

He is described by the members of the Community as a man of commanding presence and of great personal magnetism, who challenged admiration, respect, and even homage wherever he went. . . . The testimonies of Christian Metz are couched in beautiful language and are altogether on a higher plane than those of Barbara Heinemann. (Shambaugh, 1908)

The main task facing Christian Metz at the beginning of his leadership was to move the Inspirationists from persecution to safety.

Persecution came about because the Inspirationists refused to report for military duty, they refused to take oaths, and they refused to send their children to the schools established by the state. The authorities arrested and fined them. Mobs threw stones through the windows of their meeting houses. People on the street assaulted them verbally and physically.

In Schwarzenau, in 1825, the court handed down an order. The Inspirationists there had to pay taxes for the support of the established churches and schools. They could not keep their own teachers. Their children had to attend the state schools and participate in the religious instruction given by the pastor. Their children would be baptized by force, if necessary.

In the following year the court handed down another order. Since the orthodox church offered and taught everything that was necessary for salvation, the Inspirationists had to choose: return to the fold of the orthodox church, or leave town within six months. The Inspirationists looked toward Hesse, a more tolerant state.

In Hesse, Christian Metz sought a large estate where the Inspirationists could live in common and work at their customary trades. The Inspirationists leased part of the cloister at Marienborn, near Ronneburg. The congregation from Schwarzenau moved to Marienborn.

Now began fulfillment of the prophecy delivered by Christian Metz: "The Lord would soon collect and gather in His faithful servants." (Bezeugungen)

The next group of faithful servants to be collected was the long oppressed congregation at Edenkoben. For them, the Inspirationists leased a nearby estate called Herrnhaag.

Next, the congregation at Ronneburg had to move; the government there had turned against them. Through the efforts of Christian Metz, the Inspirationists leased the cloister at Arnsburg. Now they were afraid that they had leased more land than they needed; but soon the cloister at Arnsburg was filled up with Inspirationists arriving from other countries, especially Switzerland. The Inspirationists needed still more land, so they leased the convent and estate of Engelthal.

The four estates—Marienborn, Herrnhaag, Arnsburg, and Engelthal—were within a few miles of each other. Though physically separate, they had one common management. The Inspirationists began to adopt a communistic life style. Housed together in the four estates were rich and poor, educated and uneducated, professionals, merchants, manufacturers, artisans, farmers, and laborers. The rich gave of their means, the merchants of their business ability, and the artisans and farmers of their labor. Within a few years, the Community attained a degree of prosperity which promised the peaceful life foretold in the early prophecies, the life for which its members had been striving so many years.

Unfortunately, peace eluded them. Revolution was abroad in Europe, and the ruling classes felt threatened by nonconformists. The rulers began to take away, one by one, the Inspirationists' cherished liberties. Parents had to pay fines for keeping their children out of public schools; and the fines, especially for families with several children, became unbearable. Rents kept rising, and land became too expensive to buy. The very elements turned against the Inspirationists, since excessive heat and drought left them with nothing to gather at harvest time.

The Inspirationists move to New York State, 1843–1855

Christian Metz and the Elders became convinced of the need for another move. At length Christian Metz delivered a testimony from the Lord:

Your goal and your way shall lead toward the west to the land which still is open to you and your faith. I am with you and shall lead you over the sea. . . . Four may then prepare themselves. (Bezeugungen, 1842)

The Elders appointed a committee of four, including Christian Metz, to make the voyage to America. The committee was given full power to act for all the members and to purchase land where they deemed best.

They endured many hardships during their voyage, which lasted almost forty days. They reached the harbor of New York in late October, 1842. Their hardships did not cease once they reached land; for three months they suffered winter cold while examining tracts of land in New York State. Finally they purchased a former Seneca Indian Reservation, a tract of 50,000 acres (200 km2) near Buffalo, New York.

During the following year, the Inspirationists began their migration from Germany. Within the first four months of 1843, they laid out and settled the first village. They called it Eben-ezer--"Hitherto has the Lord helped us"—based on a testimony delivered by Christian Metz.

In less than a year, two more villages were laid out, Upper Ebenezer and Lower Ebenezer; the first village became Middle Ebenezer. Later another village, New Ebenezer, was laid out. When a group of Pennsylvania Dutch in Canada joined the Community, two villages were added in Canada: Canada Ebenezer and Kenneberg,

Each village had its own store, school, and church. In various villages there were sawmills, woolen mills, flour mills, and other branches of industry, giving employment to all according to their talents and inclinations.

The profits from all these enterprises went to the Community as a whole. In a provisional constitution and later in a permanent constitution, the Inspirationists agreed that all land and all improvements, everything with the exception of clothing and household goods, should be held in common. Their decision was supported by Scripture:

And all that believed were together, and had all things in common; and sold their possessions and goods, and parted them to all men as every man had need. (Acts 2:44-45)

Their decision was also supported by testimonies delivered by Christian Metz.

Thus it was that the Inspirationists were able to pay for the voyages of members who could not otherwise afford to come to America.

The Inspirationists move to Iowa, 1855–1864

The original 50,000 acres (200 km2) became 80,000 acres (320 km2) as the Community kept growing; but then land became hard to get. The rapid growth of the city of Buffalo, which was but five miles (8 km) away, caused real estate to become so costly that the purchase of additional land in any appreciable quantity was out of the question.

In addition to the lack of available land, another more serious problem confronted the Community. The thriving city of Buffalo with its worldly influences was too easily accessible to the young people; the Elders were concerned.

In 1854 Christian Metz delivered a testimony: the Inspirationists should direct their eyes to the West in order to find a new home. The Elders hesitated. Christian Metz delivered further testimonies: many opportunities had already been lost; and four representatives should now be appointed to search for a new home in the West.

The Elders appointed a committee of four, including Christian Metz, to make the search. The committee journeyed to the Territory of Kansas, which had recently been opened up for settlement. They spent a month there, inspecting tracts of land recommended by land agents; but they were unable to come to a decision. They returned to Ebenezer, much discouraged.

After more discussions, the Elders appointed a committee of two to go to the new State of Iowa and there inspect the large tracts of land that belonged to the government. Upon reaching the present location of the Community in Iowa, the committee sent back such glowing descriptions that the Elders dispatched a third committee of four who were authorized to purchase land. This committee secured a tract of nearly 18,000 acres (73 km2). Where necessary, they bought scattered farms—even at a high figure—in order to secure a contiguous tract.

The first village in the Iowa tract was laid out during the summer of 1855, on a hillside north of the Iowa River. The Inspirationists called it "Amana," which means "believe faithfully." In that same year, the Lord gave His approval of this name in a song that was poured forth through Christian Metz. Within another seven years, five more villages were laid out, within a radius of six miles (10 km) from what came to be known as Main Amana: West Amana, South Amana, High Amana, East Amana, and Middle Amana.

The Inspirationists sold their land in the Ebenezer Colonies piece by piece, a task which required much time and patience. To their business credit, it is recorded that they were able to dispose of their land and all its improvements without the loss of a single dollar. They completed their migration to Iowa in 1864, nine years after they founded their first village there.

Barbara receives the gift again, 1849

While the Inspirationists were still living in the Ebenezer Colonies, Barbara Heinemann received once again the gift of Inspiration.

Bach (1971) says that, during a footwashing ceremony in 1849, six years after the founding of the Ebenezer Colonies, Barbara Heinemann uttered prophecies that convinced Christian Metz that God was working through her. He testified that she was once again a Werkzeug.

During the migration to Iowa, Christian Metz hoped that Barbara would serve as the Werkzeug for the Ebenezer Colonies while he served as the Werkzeug for the Amana Colonies. This arrangement did not work out. Shambaugh (1908) reports that great worry was brought to the Ebenezer Community because of trouble between Barbara and the Head Elder. Christian Metz offered to transfer to her to the Amana Colonies.

Barbara accepted the transfer. She and George moved to Iowa.

The Inspirationists add Homestead to the Amana Colonies

Barbara became involved with the purchase of Homestead, Iowa, the final village in the Amana Colonies. During the early years of the Colonies, the nearest railroad station was in Iowa City, 20 miles (32 km) southeast of Main Amana; but in 1861, the Mississippi and Missouri Railroad was completed as far as the village of Homestead, only two miles south of Main Amana. Homestead would now be the place where Community received the goods that it needed, and the place from which it shipped the goods that it produced. The Elders felt the need to add Homestead to the Amana Colonies. They were afraid to do so, however, because of the influence of the outsiders living in the village. During their discussions, they asked Barbara for her opinion. She fell into Inspiration and said:

How can I establish my dwelling at that place [Homestead] when you own it only in part. Better order must be established, for there are indeed still dwelling at that place those who rob earthly treasures as well as treasures of the soul, and therefore I cannot enter. (Bezeugungen, 1861)

The Elders bought the whole village. They bought out the outsiders and removed them.

The Werkzeuge administer to the Amana Colonies

Now that the two Werkzeuge were living in the Amana Colonies, they shared the duties of administering to the six congregations. Both Werkzeuge were involved with spiritual matters, but Christian Metz remained involved with day-to-day business matters as well.

Life for the Werkzeuge was no longer as stressful as it had been in Europe. No longer did they have to make long journeys between congregations; the villages in the Amana Colonies were only a few hours apart. No longer did they have to endure rejection by some of the congregations; everyone in the Amana Colonies accepted them and looked to them for guidance. No longer did Inspirationists have to endure persecution by outsiders. They were now permitted to teach their children in their own schools. They were now allowed to purchase exemptions from military service. Since they were not now dragged into court over schooling and military service, their refusal to take oaths became less of an issue.

The duties of the Werkzeuge, though now relatively peaceful, remained numerous, however, and important to the Inspirationists.

A Werkzeug conveyed the Lord's judgment on secular matters of great import, such as the purchase of the village of Homestead.

A Werkzeug conveyed the Lord's judgment on applications for membership. The Community had grown prosperous, and membership guaranteed cradle-to-grave security. Some applicants simply wished to trade the right to their earnings for the protection provided to themselves and their families. Applicants who were still in Europe sometimes needed funds to bring themselves and their families to America. Their expenses would be paid if the Lord deemed them worthy. Applicants who were accepted were put on probation, which was sometimes shortened or dispensed with by the direct word of the Lord.

A Werkzeug sometimes conveyed the word of the Lord at the Community's religious services. Nordhoff (1875) says that these services occurred at least once a day. Every evening, neighborhood groups met for prayer services in rooms set aside for this purpose. On Wednesday and Sunday mornings, everyone in a village met in assembly rooms, where they conducted a separate service for each of the three orders. The Elders were members of the highest order; children and newlyweds were members of the lowest order. The Lord determined promotion or demotion between orders. On Saturday mornings, all the members in a village met in the church for a single service. At any of these services, a Werkzeug might fall into a trance and deliver the word of the Lord. The word thus delivered might be an admonition delivered to a particular individual, or it might be a message delivered to the entire congregation. A Werkzeug might suspend meetings because of such things as indifference in the young women or lethargy in the old women or insincerity in the hymn-singers. Meetings would not be resumed until the congregation demonstrated a spirit of repentance.

A Werkzeug participated in the Untersuchung, the yearly examination of every member in the Community. Nordhoff (1874) says that the examination was performed within each of the three orders within each of the six congregations. Members were expected to confess their shortcomings. Members believed that if anything was hidden, it would be brought to light by the Werkzeug. A member who did not mend his ways was expelled. The examination might be adjourned from day to day if members seemed unimpressed. The young people, in particular, were likely to seem unimpressed.

A Werkzeug conveyed the Lord's judgment on couples who wished to marry. Inspirationists heeded the Scriptural admonition against marriage.

He that is unmarried careth for the things that belong to the Lord, how he may please the Lord; But he that is married careth for the things that are of the world, how he may please his wife. (1 Corinthians, 7:32-33)

Though the Inspirationists tolerated marriage, they regarded it as a fall. Upon marriage, the newlyweds, regardless of their spirituality, were reduced to the lowest of the three orders and were compelled to work their back up through deepening piety. With the birth of each child, the parents suffered the same spiritual demotion. A marriage entered into without the approval of the Lord was regarded as a "godless marriage"; it was sufficient cause for banishment, as we have seen in the case of Barbara herself.

Christian Metz dies, 1867

Barbara's testimonies sometimes seemed harsher than those of Christian Metz.

One gathers from the "still living witnesses" that these later ordinances of the "Old Sister" were a great cross to Christian Metz who was constantly called upon to "adjust the difficulties." (Shambaugh, 1908)

Christian Metz died in 1867, at the age of 72. Barbara, the same age, was now the Community's sole Werkzeug. She continued in this role for another 16 years, until her own death in 1883, at the age of 88.

Her testimonies were no longer tempered by Christian Metz. Shambaugh (1908) reports on some of her denunciations.

Barbara freely denounced "godless marriages"—marriages made without the approval of the Werkzeug. Shambaugh (1908) reports that "on this very account she was the cause of a good many withdrawals from the Society during her later years."

Barbara condemned photographs, basing her condemnation on a commandment given to Moses:

Thou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth. (Exodus, 20:4)

The Elders approved of this denunciation. In November 1873, after the annual Untersuchung, they ordered the annihilation or surrender of all photographs. Furthermore, they ordered a General Assembly in each village in order to read aloud to the people a testimony in which the Lord condemned idolatry.

Barbara denounced Christmas presents. The Elders concurred. In December 1873, at a Sunday meeting in each village, the Elders read aloud the testimony of 1849 dealing with the "desecration of the Christmas feast through too many vain and sensual gifts."

Barbara viewed general reading with disfavor. She held that the reading of newspapers was the chief cause of the "retrograding of the young people." She condemned reading for entertainment as "soul dissipation" and as "diverting the mind from heaven and the things which are of the Lord." She denounced reading for knowledge with equal severity, since it is written in the Bible that "knowledge puffeth up" (1 Corinthians, 8:1) and that "in much wisdom is much grief; and he that increaseth knowledge increaseth sorrow." (Ecclesiastes, 1:18).

Her denunciation of reading was in keeping with her disdain for intellectual achievements. She believed that the Lord would reveal all that a person needed to know. In 1878, under the influence of Inspiration, she told an Elder who was of a scientific turn of mind: "It is not necessary that you should possess so great knowledge gained through pondering over the wonders and secrets of God."

In 1880, she denounced the planting of ornamental trees.

See ye to it then that all trees not bearing fruit be removed from the house, for they belong to the pleasure of the eye. You indeed have the opportunity to plant a fruit-tree instead, in which the Lord and all sensible people take pleasure. (Jahrbuch, 1880)

Barbara Heinemann Landmann dies, 1883

Barbara died on May 21, 1883, nine years after Nordhoff's visit. She was 88 years old. Scheuner, in a postscript to the Brief Narrative, says: "She passed away peacefully and quietly in the Lord." She was buried in the cemetery at Main Amana.

In the cemetery there are no family lots, no monuments. The departed members of each village are buried side by side in the order of their death. . . . The graves are marked by a low stone or white painted head-board with only the name and Todestag [date of death] on the side facing the grave. (Shambaugh, 1908)

After Barbara's death, many of the restrictions imposed by her ordinances were eased.

Members were now allowed to keep photographs. There was scarcely a sitting-room in the seven villages that did not have a photograph album. The subjects were not only friends and relatives in the world, but also many members of the Community, who had the photographs taken (almost invariably in "world clothes" worn for the occasion) on some holiday trip to the city.

Members were now allowed to exchange simple Christmas gifts. The little Inspirationist now enjoyed a reasonable sampling of the toys displayed in shop windows during the holidays.

Members were now allowed to purchase books, newspapers, and magazines according to their own inclination. Occasionally undesirable books and papers might find their way into the hands of the young people; but if the Elders discovered this fact, such books and papers were mentioned by name in an open meeting and their further reading prohibited. In connection with each village school, there was a carefully selected library of "good literature," from which the children were allowed to draw books at the end of the week. These were as a rule read by all the members of the family. In addition there was a township circulating library, and as the whole of Amana Township was owned by the Community, this library, too, was selected and supervised by the proper authorities and was not destined to lead the young reader astray. The Community continued to subscribe to technical and trade journals appropriate for the use of members engaged in the various businesses of the Community.

Although some of Barbara's ordinances were tempered by time, she continued to be honored: her testimonies, along with those of Christian Metz, were read aloud during the Sunday morning services.

No Werkzeug has arisen since Barbara's death. Nordhoff, during his 1874 visit, asked about a successor for Barbara.

The present inspired instrument being very aged, I asked whether another was ready to take her place. They said No, no one had yet appeared; but they had no doubt God would call someone to the necessary office. They were willing to trust him, and gave themselves no trouble about it. (Nordhoff, 1875)

When Shambaugh wrote (1908), God had not called anyone to the necessary office. All leadership duties, both secular and spiritual, had fallen on the Elders.

References marked with (s) are contained in Shambaugh (1908). References marked with (z) are contained in Zuber (1981). The references so marked represent translations to English from the original German.

  • Bach, M. (1971). Heinemann, Barbara (Jan. 11, 1795 – May 21, 1883). In E. T. James (Ed.), Notable American Women, 1607–1950. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. ISBN: 0-674-62734-2.
  • (s)Bezeugungen des Geistes des Herrn. Thousands of pages of manuscripts have been preserved by the Community. Much of this material consists of testimonies of the Werkzeuge.
  • (s)Gruber, E. L. (1715). Bericht von der Inspirations-Sache.
  • (s)Gruber, E. L. (1720). Kennzeichen der Göttlichkeit der Wahren Inspiration.
  • (s)Jahrbuch (1880).
  • (z)Mackinet, B. D. (1749). Essay concerning the Godliness of True Inspiration.
  • (s)Metz, C. (1822). Historische Beschreibung der Wahren Inspirations-Gemeinschaft.
  • (s)Metz, C. (1849). Auszüge aus den Tagbüchern von Br. Christian Metz.
  • Noé, C. F. (1904). Brief History of the Amana Society 1714-1900, Iowa Journal of History and Politics, April, 1904. Iowa: State Historical Society.
  • Nordhoff, C. (1875). The Communistic Societies of the United States. 1961 reprint. New York: Hillary House Publishers, Ltd.
  • Perkins, W. R. and Wick, B.L. (1891). History of the Amana Society or Community of True Inspiration. Iowa City: State University of Iowa. ISBN: 978-1-151-85448-3.
  • (z)Scheuner, G. (1873). Short Narration of the Circumstances Concerning the Awakening and The Early Divine Guidance of Barbara Heinemann, (later Landmann) as she herself related them, in her 79th year.
  • Shambaugh, B. M. H. (1908). Amana: the Community of True Inspiration. 1988, facsimile, Museum of Amana History and the State Historical Society of Iowa. Iowa: Penfield Press. ISBN: 0-941016-47-1
  • Zuber, J. W. (1981). Barbara Heinemann Landmann Biography, E. L. Gruber's Teachings on Divine Inspiration and Other Essays. Lake Mills, Iowa 50450: Graphic Publishing Company, Inc.
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