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Bernardino Ramazzini
Bernardino Ramazzini
Born (1633-10-04)4 October 1633
Died 5 November 1714(1714-11-05) (aged 81)
Nationality Italian
Alma mater University of Parma
Known for cinchona, occupational medicine
Scientific career
Fields medicine
Institutions University of Modena, University of Padua

Bernardino Ramazzini (Italian pronunciation: [bernarˈdino ramat'tsini]; 4 October 1633 – 5 November 1714) was an Italian physician.

Ramazzini, along with Francesco Torti, was an early proponent of the use of cinchona bark (from which quinine is derived) in the treatment of malaria. His most important contribution to medicine was his book on occupational diseases, De Morbis Artificum Diatriba ("Diseases of Workers").


Ramazzini was born in Carpi on 4 October 1633 according to his birth certificate. He studied medicine at the University of Parma, where his interest in occupational diseases began.


He was appointed to the chair of theory of medicine at University of Modena in 1682 then served as professor of medicine at the University of Padua from 1700 until his death. He is often called "the father of occupational medicine"

The first edition of De Morbis was published in 1700 in Modena, the second in 1713 in Padua.

Occupational medicine

Frontpage of the definitive 1713 edition of De Morbis Artificum Diatriba
Frontpage of the definitive 1713 edition of the Diatriba
Longe præstantius est præservare quam curare
From the presentation given on occasion of the tercentenary of Ramazzini's death – Padua and São Paulo, 2015
Worker syllabus
List of occupations - From the presentation given at the Ramazzini Days, Carpi, 2000

His book on occupational diseases, De Morbis Artificum Diatriba (Diseases of Workers) outlined the health hazards of chemicals, dust, metals, repetitive or violent motions, odd postures, and other disease-causative agents encountered by workers in more than fifty occupations. This was one of the founding and seminal works of occupational medicine and played a substantial role in its development.

He proposed that physicians should extend the list of questions that Hippocrates recommended they ask their patients by adding, "What is your occupation?".

Ramazzini saw prevention as being better than cure. In his Oratio given in 1711, he suggested that "it is much better to prevent than to cure, and so much easier to foresee future harm and avoid it rather than have to get rid of it after having fallen prey".


In regards to malaria, Ramazzini was one of the first to support the use of the quinine-rich bark cinchona. Many falsely claimed that quinine was toxic and ineffective, but Ramazzini recognized its importance. He is quoted, "It [quinine] did for medicine what gun powder did for war."


Ramazzini died in Padua on 5 November 1714.


In a lifestyle article "Sitting can lead to an early death," the writer acknowledged Ramazzini's pioneering study of this field in the 17th century.

The honor society Collegium Ramazzini is named after him.


Ramazzini - De morbis artificum diatriba, 1745 - 3026294
De morbis artificum diatriba, 1745

See also

Kids robot.svg In Spanish: Bernardino Ramazzini para niños

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