College basketball facts
College basketball is basketball played between teams from colleges or universities, usually in the United States. The most popular American college basketball league is the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). Basketball in the NCAA is put into three divisions: Division I, Division II and Division III. However, there are other college basketball leagues, such as the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics (NAIA). College basketball teams are split into conferences, which are groups of about 10 teams.
Division I of the NCAA has two tournaments to determine who the national champion. One tournament is for men and one is for women. The men's tournament has 68 teams, and the women's tournament has 64 teams. These tournaments are often called "March Madness".
Compared to professional basketball
NCAA basketball and NBA basketball are different in some ways:
- In NCAA basketball, there are more teams.
- In NCAA basketball, there are fewer games.
- In NCAA basketball, the 3-point line is farther back.
- In NCAA basketball, the game is split into two 20 minute halves instead of four 12 minute quarters.
- In NCAA basketball, the shot clock is 35 seconds instead of 24 seconds.
- In NCAA basketball, the scores are usually lower.
The history of basketball is traced back to a YMCA International Training School, known today as Springfield College, located in Springfield, Massachusetts. The sport was created by a physical education teacher named James Naismith, who in the winter of 1891 was given the task of creating a game that would keep track athletes in shape and that would prevent them from getting hurt a lot.
The date of the first formal basketball game played at the Springfield YMCA Training School under Naismith's rules is generally given as December 21, 1891. Basketball began to spread to college campuses by 1893.
The first basketball games in the United States were played at YMCAs in 1891 and 1892. By 1893, the game was being played on college campuses.
The original rules for basketball were very different from today's modern rules of the sport, including the use of 8 players per side. In the beginning James Naismith established 13 original rules:
- The ball may be thrown in any direction with one or both hands.
- The ball may be batted in any direction with one or both hands, but never with the fist.
- A player cannot run with the ball. The player must throw it from the spot on which he catches it, with allowance to be made for a man who catches the ball when running at a good speed.
- The ball must be held by the hands. The arms or body must not be used for holding it.
- No shouldering, holding, pushing, striking, or tripping in any way of an opponent is allowed. The first infringement of this rule by any person shall count as a foul; the second shall disqualify him until the next goal is made or, if there was evident intent to injure the person, for the whole of the game. No substitution shall be allowed.
- A foul will be called when a player is seen striking at the ball with the fist, or when violations of rules 3 and 4 and such as described in rule 5 have been made.
- If either side makes three consecutive fouls it shall count as a goal for the opponents ("consecutive" means without the opponents in the meantime making a foul).
- A goal shall be made when the ball is thrown or batted from the grounds into the basket and stays there, providing those defending the goal do not touch or disturb the goal. If the ball rests on the edges, and the opponent moves the basket, it shall count as a goal.
- When the ball goes out of bounds, it shall be thrown into the field and played by the first person touching it. In case of dispute the umpire shall throw it straight into the field. The thrower-in is allowed five seconds. If he holds it longer, it shall go to the opponent. If any side persists in delaying the game, the umpire shall call a foul on them.
- The umpire shall be the judge of the men and shall note the fouls and notify the referee when three consecutive fouls have been made. He shall have power to disqualify men according to rule 5.
- The referee shall be judge of the ball and shall decide when the ball is in play, in bounds, to which side it belongs, and shall keep the time. He shall decide when a goal has been made and keep account of the goals, with any other duties that are usually performed by a referee.
- The time shall be two fifteen-minute halves, with five minutes rest between.
- The side making the most goals in that time shall be declared the winner.
College basketball Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.