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Condoleezza Rice
Condoleezza Rice cropped.jpg
66th United States Secretary of State
In office
January 26, 2005 – January 20, 2009
President George W. Bush
Deputy Richard Armitage (2005)
Robert Zoellick (2005–2006)
John Negroponte (2007–2009)
Preceded by Colin Powell
Succeeded by Hillary Rodham Clinton
20th United States National Security Advisor
In office
January 20, 2001 – January 26, 2005
President George W. Bush
Deputy Stephen Hadley
Preceded by Sandy Berger
Succeeded by Stephen Hadley
Provost of Stanford University
In office
1993–1999
Preceded by Gerald J. Lieberman
Succeeded by John L. Hennessy
Personal details
Born (1954-11-14) November 14, 1954 (age 67)
Birmingham, Alabama
Political party Republican
Alma mater University of Denver
University of Notre Dame
Profession Professor, Provost, Politician

Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954 in Birmingham, Alabama) is an American Republican politician, She was the 66th United States Secretary of State. She was the second Secretary of State under former President George W. Bush. She took over from Colin Powell on January 26, 2005, after he stepped down. Rice was the first African American woman, second African American (after Powell), and second woman (after Madeleine Albright) to serve as Secretary of State. Her educator was Josef Korbel, he inspired her.

Before she became Secretary of State, Condoleezza Rice was Bush's National Security Advisor during his first term (2001–2005). Before she did this, she was a Professor of political science at Stanford University from 1993 to 1999, where she also was the Provost.

Rice was in the 2011 documentary Miss Representation.

Rice was a Democrat until 1982. She then changed to Republican because she did not agree with the foreign policy of Democratic President Jimmy Carter and because her father was Republican.

Rice was the United States National Security Advisor to President George W. Bush during the September 11 attacks.

Early life

Rice was born in Birmingham, Alabama, the only child of Angelena (née Ray) Rice, a high school science, music, and oratory teacher, and John Wesley Rice, Jr., a high school guidance counselor, Presbyterian minister, and dean of students at Stillman College, a historically black college in Tuscaloosa, Alabama.

Her name, Condoleezza, derives from the music-related term con dolcezza, which in Italian means, "with sweetness".

Rice has roots in the American South going back to the pre-Civil War era, and some of her ancestors worked as sharecroppers for a time after emancipation.

Rice grew up in the Titusville neighborhood of Birmingham, and then Tuscaloosa, Alabama, at a time when the South was racially segregated. The Rices lived on the campus of Stillman College.

Early education and music training

Rice began to learn French, music, figure skating and ballet at the age of three. At the age of fifteen, she began piano classes with the goal of becoming a concert pianist.

High school and university education

In 1967, the family moved to Denver, Colorado. She attended St. Mary's Academy, an all-girls Catholic high school in Cherry Hills Village, Colorado, and graduated at age 16 in 1971. Rice enrolled at the University of Denver, where her father was then serving as an assistant dean.

Rice initially majored in Music, but began to consider an alternative major. She attended an International Politics course taught by Josef Korbel, which sparked her interest in the Soviet Union and international relations.

In 1974, at age 19, Rice was inducted into the Phi Beta Kappa Society, and was awarded a B.A., cum laude, in political science by the University of Denver. While at the University of Denver she was a member of Alpha Chi Omega, Gamma Delta chapter. She obtained a master's degree in political science from the University of Notre Dame in 1975.

She first worked in the State Department in 1977, during the Carter administration, as an intern in the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs. She would also study Russian at Moscow State University in the summer of 1979, and intern with the RAND Corporation in Santa Monica, California.

In 1981, at age 26, she received her Ph.D. in political science from the Josef Korbel School of International Studies at the University of Denver. Her dissertation centered on military policy and politics in what was then the communist state of Czechoslovakia.

From 1980 to 1981, she was a fellow at Stanford University's Arms Control and Disarmament Program, having won a Ford Foundation Dual Expertise Fellowship in Soviet Studies and International Security.

Career

She worked at the State Department under the Carter administration and served on the National Security Council as the Soviet and Eastern Europe Affairs Advisor to President George H. W. Bush during the dissolution of the Soviet Union and German reunification from 1989 to 1991. Rice later pursued an academic fellowship at Stanford University, where she later served as provost from 1993 to 1999.

On December 17, 2000, she joined the Bush administration as President George W. Bush's National Security Advisor. In Bush's second term, she succeeded Colin Powell as Secretary of State. She was the second female secretary of state, after Madeleine Albright.

Following her confirmation as Secretary of State, Rice pioneered the policy of Transformational Diplomacy directed toward expanding the number of responsible democratic governments in the world and especially in the Greater Middle East. That policy faced challenges as Hamas captured a popular majority in Palestinian elections, and influential countries including Saudi Arabia and Egypt maintained authoritarian systems (with U.S. backing). While in the position, she chaired the Millennium Challenge Corporation's board of directors.

In March 2009, Rice returned to Stanford University as a political science professor and the Thomas and Barbara Stephenson Senior Fellow on Public Policy at the Hoover Institution. In September 2010, she became a faculty member of the Stanford Graduate School of Business and a director of its Global Center for Business and the Economy. In January 2020, it was announced that Rice would succeed Thomas W. Gilligan as the next director of the Hoover Institution on September 1, 2020. She is on the Board of Directors of Dropbox and Makena Capital Management, LLC.

Family and personal life

Rice has never married and has no children. In the 1970s, she dated and was briefly engaged to professional American football player Rick Upchurch.

Rice's mother, Angelena Rice, died of breast cancer in 1985, aged 61, when Rice was 30. In 1989, Rice's father, John Wesley Rice, wed Clara Bailey, to whom he remained married until his death in 2000, aged 77.

On August 20, 2012, Rice was one of the first two women to be admitted as members to Augusta National Golf Club; the other was South Carolina financier Darla Moore. In 2014, Rice was named to the ESPNW Impact 25.

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