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Johann Ambrosius Bach
Johann Ambrosius Bach, 1685

Johann Ambrosius Bach (22 February 1645 – 2 March 1695 [O.S. 20 February] ) was a German musician and the father of Johann Sebastian Bach.

Ambrosius was born in Erfurt, Germany. His father, Christoph Bach (1613–1661) was also a musician, as was his twin brother Johann Christoph Bach (1645–1693). Ambrosius was employed as a violinist in Erfurt.

In 1671, Ambrosius moved his family to Eisenach, where he was employed as a court trumpeter and director of the town musicians. He married his first wife Maria Elisabeth Lämmerhirt on 1 April 1668, and they had eight children. Four of these children became musicians, including Johann Sebastian. Marie died and was buried on 3 May 1694. On 27 November 1694 Ambrosius married Barbara Margaretha. This was her third marriage; both her former husbands, including Johann Günther Bach, had died. She had two young daughters. Ambrosius became very sick, and died in Eisenach less than three months later. Barbara was unable to look after all the children, so Johann Jacob Bach and Johann Sebastian Bach, moved in with the eldest son, Johann Christoph Bach.

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