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List of vascular plants of Norfolk Island facts for kids

Kids Encyclopedia Facts
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Foliage of Araucaria heterophylla (Norfolk Island Pine), a well-known Norfolk Island endemic

This is a list of vascular plants that are indigenous to, or naturalised on, Norfolk Island. The list is based on the most recent authoritative treatment of Norfolk Island, the 1994 Flora of Australia 49. That source is dated in places; for example its classification of the flowering plants uses the Cronquist system, aspects of which are no longer accepted. This list therefore differs from the Flora of Australia treatment in several areas; these are footnoted.

List of flora of Norfolk Island

Norfolk Island has 523 taxa of vascular plants, 136 of which are indigenous, and 387 naturalised. Forty-four of the indigenous taxa are endemic. There are two endemic genera, Ungeria and Streblorrhiza.

Eudicotyledons

The eudicots are represented on Norfolk Island by 75 families, 220 genera, and 287 species.

Acanthaceae
  • Hypoestes phyllostachya
  • Ruellia ciliosa (Naturalised)
Aizoaceae
Amaranthaceae
Anacardiaceae
  • Schinus terebinthifolius (Naturalised)
Apiaceae
Apocynaceae
  • Alyxia gynopogon (Endemic)
  • Melodinus baueri (Endemic)
  • Vinca major (Naturalised)
Araliaceae
Asclepiadaceae
  • Gomphocarpus physocarpus (Naturalised)
  • Tylophora biglandulosa
Asteraceae
  • Ageratina riparia (Naturalised)
  • Ageratum conyzoides (Naturalised)
  • Arctotheca calendula (Naturalised)
  • Argyranthemum frutescens (Naturalised)
  • Aster subulatus (Naturalised)
  • Bidens pilosa (Naturalised)
  • Calendula officinalis (Naturalised)
  • Carduus pycnocephalus (Naturalised)
  • Carduus tenuiflorus (Naturalised)
  • Centaurea melitensis (Naturalised)
  • Conyza bonariensis (Naturalised)
  • Conyza sumatrensis (Naturalised)
  • Cotula australis (Naturalised)
  • Crassocephalum crepidioides (Naturalised)
  • Erechtites valerianifolia (Naturalised)
  • Erigeron karvinskianus (Naturalised)
  • Euchiton involucratus (Naturalised)
  • Euchiton sphaericus
  • Euryops chrysanthemoides (Naturalised)
  • Erechtites hieraciifolia (Naturalised)
  • Facelis retusa (Naturalised)
  • Galinsoga parviflora (Naturalised)
  • Gamochaeta calviceps (Naturalised)
  • Gamochaeta coarctata (Naturalised)
  • Gamochaeta purpurea (Naturalised)
  • Hypochaeris glabra (Naturalised)
  • Hypochaeris radicata (Naturalised)
  • Montanoa hibiscifolia (Naturalised)
  • Picris burbidgeae (Naturalised)
  • Pseudognaphalium luteoalbum
  • Senecio australis
  • Senecio evansianus (Endemic)
  • Senecio hooglandia (Endemic)
  • Sigesbeckia orientalis (Naturalised)
  • Silybum marianum (Naturalised)
  • Soliva pterosperma (Naturalised)
  • Sonchus oleraceus (Naturalised)
  • Tagetes minuta (Naturalised)
  • Taraxacum officinale (Naturalised)
  • Tragopogon porrifolius (Naturalised)
  • Melanthera biflora
Basellaceae
  • Anredera cordifolia (Naturalised)
Bignoniaceae
  • Tecomaria capensis (Naturalised)
Boraginaceae
  • Cynoglossum australe (Naturalised)
  • Echium plantagineum (Naturalised)
Brassicaceae
  • Brassica juncea (Naturalised)
  • Brassica napus (Naturalised)
  • Capsella bursa-pastoris (Naturalised)
  • Cardamine hirsuta (Naturalised)
  • Coronopus didymus (Naturalised)
  • Lepidium bonariense (Naturalised)
  • Lobularia maritima (Naturalised)
  • Matthiola incana (Naturalised)
  • Rapistrum rugosum (Naturalised)
  • Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (Naturalised)
  • Sisymbrium officinale (Naturalised)
  • Sisymbrium orientale (Naturalised)
Caesalpiniaceae
  • Caesalpinia bonduc
  • Caesalpinia decapetala (Naturalised)
  • Caesalpinia major (Naturalised)
  • Chamaecrista rotundifolia (Naturalised)
  • Senna septemtrionalis (Naturalised)
Campanulaceae
  • Lobelia anceps
  • Pratia purpurascens (Naturalised)
  • Wahlenbergia gracilis
  • Wahlenbergia littoricola subsp. vernicosa
  • Wahlenbergia violaceae (Status uncertain, most likely naturalised)
Cannabaceae
Capparaceae
  • Capparis nobilis (Endemic)
Caprifoliaceae
  • Lonicera japonica (Naturalised)
Caryophyllaceae
  • Cerastium fontanum subsp. vulgare (Naturalised)
  • Cerastium glomeratum (Naturalised)
  • Paronychia brasiliana (Naturalised)
  • Petrorhagia velutina (Naturalised)
  • Polycarpon tetraphyllum (Naturalised)
  • Sagina apetala (Naturalised)
  • Silene gallica (Naturalised)
  • Stellaria media (Naturalised)
Casuarinaceae
Celastraceae
  • Elaeodendron curtipendulum
Calystegia soldanella 060524wb
Calystegia soldanella (Beach Morning Glory)
Convolvulaceae
Corynocarpaceae
  • Corynocarpus laevigatus (Naturalised)
Crassulaceae
  • Bryophyllum delagoaense (Naturalised)
  • Bryophyllum pinnatum (Naturalised)
  • Crassula multicava subsp. multicava (Naturalised)
Cucurbitaceae
  • Cucumis anguria (Naturalised)
  • Diplocyclos palmatus subsp. affinis
  • Sicyos australis
  • Zehneria baueriana
Euphorbiaceae
Fabaceae
  • Canacalia rosea
  • Castanospermum australe (Naturalised)
  • Chamaecytisus palmensis (Naturalised)
  • Crotalaria agatiflora (Naturalised)
  • Desmodium incanum (Naturalised)
  • Desmodium tortuosum (Naturalised)
  • Dipogon lignosus (Naturalised)
  • Erythrina caffra (Naturalised)
  • Erythrina speciosa (Naturalised)
  • Glycone microphylla (Naturalised)
  • Indigofera suffruticosa (Naturalised)
  • Lablab purpureus (Naturalised)
  • Lotus angustissimus (Naturalised)
  • Lupinus cosentinii (Naturalised)
  • Medicago lupulina (Naturalised)
  • Medicago polymorpha (Naturalised)
  • Melilotus indicus (Naturalised)
  • Millettia australis
  • Neotonia wightii (Naturalised)
  • Pueraria lobata (Naturalised)
  • Streblorrhiza speciosa (Endemic)
  • Teline monspessulana (Naturalised)
  • Trifolium campestre (Naturalised)
  • Trifolium dubium (Naturalised)
  • Trifolium glomeratum (Naturalised)
  • Trifolium suffocatum (Naturalised)
  • Vicia hirsuta (Naturalised)
  • Vicia sativa subsp. nigra (Naturalised)
  • Vicia tetrasperma (Naturalised)
  • Vigna marina
Frankeniaceae
  • Frankenia pulverulenta (Naturalised)
Fumariaceae
  • Fumaria muralis (Naturalised)
Gentianaceae
  • Centaurium tenuiflorum (Naturalised)
Geraniaceae
  • Erodium moschatum (Naturalised)
  • Geranium dissectum (Naturalised)
  • Geranium gardneri (Naturalised)
  • Pelargonium australe (Naturalised)
  • Pelargonium panduriforme (Naturalised)
Lamiaceae
Lauraceae
Linaceae
  • Linum marginale (Naturalised)
  • Linum trigynum (Naturalised)
Loranthaceae
  • Ileostylus micranthus
Lythraceae
  • Lythrum hyssopifolia (Naturalised)
Hibiscus tiliaceus (Dominica)
Hibiscus tiliaceus (Beach Hibiscus)
Malvaceae
  • Abutilon grandifolium (Naturalised)
  • Abutilon julianae (Endemic)
  • Hibiscus diversifolius
  • Hibiscus insularis (Endemic)
  • Hibiscus pedunculatus (Naturalised)
  • Hibiscus tiliaceus
  • Lagunaria patersonia subsp. patersonia
  • Malva parviflora (Naturalised)
  • Malvastrum coromandelianum (Naturalised)
  • Modiola caroliniana (Naturalised)
  • Pavonia hastata (Naturalised)
  • Sida carpinifolia (Naturalised)
  • Sida rhombifolia (Naturalised)
Meliaceae
Mimosaceae
Moraceae
Myoporaceae
Myrtaceae
  • Eucalyptus botryoides (Naturalised)
  • Eucalyptus fibrosa (Naturalised)
  • Eugenia uniflora (Naturalised)
  • Metrosideros excelsa (Naturalised)
  • Metrosideros kermadecensis (Naturalised)
  • Metrosideros excelsa x kermadecensis (Hybrid of indigenous and naturalised species)
  • Psidium cattleianum var. cattleianum (Naturalised)
  • Psidium cattleianum var. littorale (Naturalised)
  • Psidium guajava (Naturalised)
Nyctaginaceae
Ochnaceae
  • Ochna serrulata (Naturalised)
Oleaceae
  • Jasminum simplicifolium subsp. australiense
  • Ligustrum lucidum (Naturalised)
  • Ligustrum sinense (Naturalised)
  • Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata (Naturalised)
Onagraceae
  • Oenothera affinis (Naturalised)
  • Oenothera rosea (Naturalised)
  • Oenothera stricta (Naturalised)
  • Oenothera tetraptera (Naturalised)
Orobanchaceae
  • Orobanche minor (Naturalised)
Oxalidaceae
Papaveraceae
Passifloraceae
  • Passiflora aurantia
  • Passiflora edulis (Naturalised)
Pennantiaceae
  • Pennantia endlicheri (Endemic)
Phytolaccaceae
Piperaceae
  • Macropiper excelsum subsp. psittacorum
  • Peperomia tetraphylla
  • Peperomia urvilleana
Pittosporaceae
  • Pittosporum bracteolatum (Endemic)
  • Pittosporum crassifolium (Naturalised)
  • Pittosporum undulatum (Naturalised)
Plantaginaceae
  • Plantago debilis (Naturalised)
  • Plantago lanceolata (Naturalised)
  • Plantago major (Naturalised)
  • Russelia equisetiformis (Naturalised)
Plumbaginaceae
  • Plumbago auriculata (Naturalised)
  • Plumbago zeylanica
Polygalaceae
  • Polygala myrtifolia (Naturalised)
Polygonaceae
  • Fallopia convolvulus (Naturalised)
  • Muehlenbeckia australis
  • Persicaria decipiens
  • Rumex brownii (Naturalised)
  • Rumex conglomeratus (Naturalised)
Portulacaceae
Primulaceae
  • Anagallis arvensis (Naturalised)
  • Rapanea ralstoniae (Endemic)
  • Samolus repens var. stricta
Proteaceae
Ranunculaceae
  • Clematis dubia (Endemic)
  • Ranunculus muricatus (Naturalised)
  • Ranunculus parviflora (Naturalised)
  • Ranunculus repens (Naturalised)
  • Ranunculus sessiliflorus (Naturalised)
Rosaceae
  • Duchesnea indica (Naturalised)
  • Eriobotrya japonica (Naturalised)
  • Rhaphiolepis umbellata (Naturalised)
  • Rubus fruticosus (Naturalised)
Rubiaceae
  • Coffea arabica (Naturalised)
  • Coprosma baueri (Endemic)
  • Coprosma pilosa (Endemic)
  • Pentas lanceolata (Naturalised)
  • Sherardia arvensis (Naturalised)
Rutaceae
Santalaceae
  • Exocarpus phyllanthoides var. phyllanthoides
Sapindaceae
  • Dodonaea viscosa subsp. viscosa
PCostata877
Pouteria costata (Bastard Ironwood)
Sapotaceae
Scrophulariaceae
  • Calceolaria tripartita (Naturalised)
  • Misopates orontium (Naturalised)
  • Verbascum thapsus (Naturalised)
  • Verbascum virgatum (Naturalised)
  • Veronica arvensis (Naturalised)
  • Veronica persica (Naturalised)
  • Veronica plebeia (Naturalised)
Solanaceae
  • Brugmansia suaveolens (Naturalised)
  • Datura stramonium (Naturalised)
  • Lycium ferocissimum (Naturalised)
  • Lycopersicon esculentum (Naturalised)
  • Nicandra physalodes (Naturalised)
  • Nicotiana tabacum (Naturalised)
  • Petunia × hybrida (Naturalised)
  • Physalis peruviana (Naturalised)
  • Solandra maxima (Naturalised)
  • Solanum americanum subsp. nutans
  • Solanum aviculare (Extinct)
  • Solanum bauerianum (Endemic)
  • Solanum linneanum (Naturalised)
  • Solanum mauritianum (Naturalised)
Sterculiaceae
  • Ungeria floribunda (Endemic)
Thymelaeaceae
  • Wikstroemia australis
Tiliaceae
  • Triumfetta rhomboidea
Urticaceae
  • Boehmeria australis subsp. australis (Endemic)
  • Boehmeria nivea (Naturalised)
  • Elatostema montanum (Endemic)
  • Parietaria debilis
  • Pilea microphylla (Naturalised)
  • Urtica urens (Naturalised)
Verbenaceae
  • Duranta erecta (Naturalised)
  • Lantana camara (Naturalised)
  • Verbena bonariensis (Naturalised)
  • Verbena litoralis (Naturalised)
Violaceae
  • Melicytus latifolius (Endemic)
  • Melicytus remiflorus subsp. oblongifolius (Endemic)
  • Viola betonicifolia subsp. nova-guineensis
  • Viola tricolor (Naturalised)
Viscaceae
  • Korthalsella disticha (Endemic)

Monocotyledons

The Monocotyledons (monocots) are represented on Norfolk Island by 16 families, 81 genera, and 110 species. Most of them are naturalised, with naturalised grasses account for 5 families, 47 genera and 67 species. Of the 43 indigenous species, 9 are endemic.

Phormiumtenaxflowertui
Phormium tenax (New Zealand Flax)
Agavaceae
Alliaceae
  • Nothoscordum borbonicum (Naturalised)
Araceae
  • Colocasia esculenta (Naturalised)
  • Xanthosoma sagittifolium (Naturalised)
  • Zantedeschia aethiopica (Naturalised)
KermadecNikau
Rhopalostylis baueri
Arecaceae
Asphodelaceae
  • Aloe maculata (Naturalised)
Cannaceae
  • Canna indica (Naturalised)
Colchicaceae
  • Gloriosa superba (Naturalised)
Commelinaceae
Cyperaceae
  • Bolboschoenus fluviatilis
  • Carex breviculmis
  • Carex inversa
  • Carex neesiana (Endemic)
  • Cyperus albostriatus (Naturalised)
  • Cyperus gracilis (Naturalised)
  • Cyperus involucratus (Naturalised)
  • Cyperus lucidus
  • Cyperus rotundus (Naturalised)
  • Eleocharis acuta
  • Isolepis inundata
  • Isolepis nodosa
  • Isolepis cernua var. setiformis (Endemic)
  • Kyllinga brevifolia
  • Pycreus polystachyos
  • Schoenoplectus validus
Hemerocallidaceae
  • Dianella intermedia (Endemic)
Iridaceae
  • Anomatheca laxa (Naturalised)
  • Ferraria crispa (Naturalised)
  • Gladiolus × hortulanus (Naturalised)
  • Homeria flaccida (Naturalised)
  • Sisyrinchium micranthum (Naturalised)
  • Tritonia crocata (Naturalised)
  • Tritonia lineata (Naturalised)
Juncaceae
  • Juncus articulatus (Naturalised)
  • Juncus australis (Naturalised)
  • Juncus bufonius (Naturalised)
  • Juncus continuus
  • Juncus pallidus (Naturalised)
  • Juncus usitatus (Naturalised)
Liliaceae
  • Alstroemeria pulchella (Naturalised)
  • Asparagus aethiopicus (Naturalised)
  • Asparagus plumosis (Naturalised)
  • Crinum asiaticum var. pedunculatum
  • Lilium formosanum (Naturalised)
Limnocharitaceae
  • Hydrocleys nymphoides
Orchidaceae
Pandanaceae
  • Freycinetia baueriana (Endemic)
Poaceae
  • Agrostis avenacea
  • Aira cupaniana (Naturalised)
  • Ammophila arenaria (Naturalised)
  • Anthoxanthum odoratum (Naturalised)
  • Arundo donax (Naturalised)
  • Avena fatua (Naturalised)
  • Avena sativa (Naturalised)
  • Axonopus fissifolius (Naturalised)
  • Bothriochloa macra (Naturalised)
  • Briza maxima (Naturalised)
  • Briza minor (Naturalised)
  • Bromus arenarius (Naturalised)
  • Bromus diandrus (Naturalised)
  • Bromus hordeaceus (Naturalised)
  • Bromus scoparius (Naturalised)
  • Bromus willdenowii (Naturalised)
  • Catapodium rigidum (Naturalised)
  • Cenchrus caliculatus (Possibly extinct)
  • Chloris gayana (Naturalised)
  • Cortaderia selloana (Naturalised)
  • Cymbopogon refractus
  • Cynodon dactylon (Naturalised)
  • Dactylis glomerata (Naturalised)
  • Dichelachne crinita
  • Dichelachne micrantha
  • Digitaria ciliaris (Naturalised)
  • Digitaria setigera
  • Echinochloa crusgalli (Naturalised)
  • Echinopogon ovatus
  • Ehrharta erecta (Naturalised)
  • Eleusine indica (Naturalised)
  • Elymus multiflorus subsp. kingianus
  • Elymus scaber
  • Eragrostis brownii (Naturalised)
  • Hordeum murinum (Naturalised)
  • Lepturus repens (Possibly indigenous)
  • Lolium perenne (Naturalised)
  • Lolium rigidum var. rigidum (Naturalised)
  • Lolium rigidum var. rottboellioides (Naturalised)
  • Melinis minutiflora (Naturalised)
  • Microlaena stipoides
  • Oplismenus hirtellus subsp. hirtellus
  • Oplismenus hirtellus subsp. imbecillus
  • Panicum effusum
  • Panicum maximum (Naturalised)
  • Paspalum dilatatum (Naturalised)
  • Paspalum orbiculare
  • Paspalum scrobiculatum
  • Pennisetum clandestinum (Naturalised)
  • Pennisetum purpureum (Naturalised)
  • Phalaris minor (Naturalised)
  • Poa annua (Naturalised)
  • Poa pratensis (Naturalised)
  • Rhynchelytrum repens (Naturalised)
  • Rostraria cristata (Naturalised)
  • Setaria palmifolia (Naturalised)
  • Setaria pumila subsp. pallidefusca (Naturalised)
  • Setaria verticillata (Naturalised)
  • Sorghum arundinaceum (Naturalised)
  • Spinifex sericeus (Naturalised)
  • Sporobolus africanus (Naturalised)
  • Sporobolus virginicus
  • Stenotaphrum secundatum (Naturalised)
  • Trisetum arduanum (Naturalised)
  • Vulpia bromoides (Naturalised)
  • Vulpia myuros f. megalura (Naturalised)
Pontederiaceae
  • Eichhornia crassipes (Naturalised)
Smilacaceae
  • Geitonoplesium cymosum
Typhaceae

Pinophyta

Two species of Pinophyta (conifers) occur on Norfolk Island: the popular endemic Araucaria heterophylla (Norfolk Island Pine), and the naturalised Cupressus lusitanica.

Norfolkpine001
Araucaria heterophylla (Norfolk Island Pine)
Araucariaceae
Cupressus lusitanica
Cupressus lusitanica (Mexican Cypress)
Cupressaceae
  • Cupressus lusitanica (Naturalised)

Pteridophyta

The Pteridophyta (ferns) are represented on Norfolk Island by 14 families, 24 genera, and 37 species. Seven species are endemic; none are naturalised.

Adiantaceae
  • Adiantum diaphanum
  • Adiantum pubescens
  • Cheilanthes distans
  • Cheilanthes sieberi
  • Pellaea rotundifolia
Aspleniaceae
  • Asplenium australasicum f. australasicum
  • Asplenium australasicum f. robinsonii
  • Asplenium difforme
  • Asplenium dimorphum (Endemic)
  • Asplenium polyodon
Athyriaceae
  • Diplazium assimile
  • Diplazium australe
  • Lunathyrium japonicum
Azollaceae
Blechnaceae
Cyatheaceae
Davalliaceae
  • Arthropteris tenella
  • Nephrolepis cordifolia
  • Nephrolepis flexuosa
Dennstaedtiaceae
Dryopteridaceae
  • Arachnoides aristata
  • Lastreopsis calantha (Endemic)
Gleicheniaceae
  • Dicranopteris linearis
Hymenophyllaceae
  • Cephalomanes bauerianum (Endemic)
  • Credidomanes endlicherianum
  • Credidomanes saxifragioides
Marattiaceae
  • Marattis salicina
Nephrolepidaceae
  • Nephrolepis cordifolia (Naturalised)
Polypodiaceae
Pteridaceae
Salvinia molesta
Salvinia molesta (Giant Salvinia)
Salviniaceae
  • Salvinia molesta (Naturalised)
Thelypteridaceae
  • Christella dentata
  • Christella parasitica
  • Macrothelypteris torresiana
Vittariaceae
  • Vittaria elongata

Lycopodiophyta

Norfolk Island has two species of Lycopodiophyta, the indigenous club moss Lycopodiella cernua and the naturalised spikemoss Selaginella kraussiana.

Lycopodiaceae
  • Lycopodiella cernua
Selaginellaceae
  • Selaginella kraussiana (Naturalised)

Psilotophyta

Norfolk Island has two species of Psilotophyta.

Psilotaceae

Ophioglossophyta

Norfolk Island has one species of Ophioglossophyta.

Ophioglossaceae
  • Ophioglossum petiolatum
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List of vascular plants of Norfolk Island Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.