- All men are mortal
- Socrates is a man
- Therefore, Socrates is mortal.
The same syllogism can be written in a notation:
is read like "and", meaning both of the two. is read like "or", meaning at least one of the two. is read like "implies", or "If ... then ...". is read like "not", or "it is not the case that ...". Parentheses (,) are added for clarity and precedence; this means that what is in parenthesis should be looked at before the things outside.
This is the same example using logic symbols:
And this is the same example using general terms:
Finally, those talking about logic talk about statements. A statement is simply something like "Aristole is human" or "all humans are mortal". Statements have a truth value; they are either true or false, but not both. Mistakes in logic are called "fallacies".
A logical proof is a list of statements. Each statement in the proof is either an assumption or has been proven to follow from earlier statements in the proof. A proof shows that one statement, the conclusion, follows from the assumptions. One can, for example, prove that "Aristotle is mortal" follows from "Aristotle is a man" and "All men are mortal".
There are statements that are always true.
is always true. It is called a tautology. (for example: "Either it rains, or it does not rain")
Logic is used in mathematics. People who study math create proofs that use logic to show that math facts are correct. There is an area of mathematics called mathematical logic that studies logic using mathematics.
Logic is also studied in philosophy.
- Principia Mathematica
Aristotle, 384–322 BCE.
Logic for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.