Ornithischia facts for kids

Kids Encyclopedia Facts
Ornithischia
Temporal range: Upper TriassicUpper Cretaceous, 228–65 mya
Ornithischian pelvic structure (left side)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Sauropsida
Superorder: Dinosauria
Order: Ornithischia
Seeley, 1888
Edmontosaurus pelvis left
Edmontosaurus pelvis (showing ornithischian structure – left side, tail to the right) Oxford University Museum of Natural History

Ornithischia is an order of beaked, herbivorous dinosaurs. They are known as the 'bird-hipped' dinosaurs because of their hip structure. However, birds actually descended from the 'lizard-hipped' dinosaurs, the Saurischia.

An alternative name for the order is the Predentata, because all of them are beaked herbivorous dinosaurs. The beak is in front of the jaw-bone, the dentary, so it is a 'predentary'. The upper half of the beak is the 'premaxilla' on the end of the upper jaw. The beak is a key adaptation for cropping plants for their food.

Their original (basal) form of locomotion was bipedal. However, from early in their evolutionary history, they were capable of both bipedal and quadrupedal locomotion. Several groups became entirely quadrupedal.

The ornithischia has two sub-orders:

Classification

Ornithischia is a branch-based taxon defined as all dinosaurs more closely related to Triceratops horridus than to either Passer domesticus or Saltasaurus loricatus.

The cladogram below follows a 2009 analysis. All tested members of Heterodontosauridae form a polytomy.

Ornithischia

Pisanosaurus Pisanosaurus.jpg




Heterodontosauridae Fruitadens.jpg


Genasauria
Thyreophora

Lesothosaurus




Scutellosaurus Scutellosaurus.jpg




Emausaurus




Scelidosaurus Scelidosaurus harrisonii.png




Stegosauria Stegosaurus BW.jpg



Ankylosauria Edmontonia dinosaur.png







Neornithischia

Stormbergia




Agilisaurus Agilisaurus2.jpg




Hexinlusaurus


Cerapoda

Othnielia



Hypsilophodon Hypsilophodon.jpg



Jeholosaurus



Yandusaurus




Orodromeus Orodromeus (pencil 2013).png



Zephyrosaurus




Ornithopoda Parasaurolophuspic steveoc.jpg




Pachycephalosauria Pachycephalosauria jmallon.jpg



Ceratopsia Psittacosaurus mongoliensis whole BW.jpgTriceratops BW.jpg











Cladogram after Butler et al., 2011. Ornithopoda includes Hypsilophodon, Jeholosaurus and others.

Ornithischia

Pisanosaurus Pisanosaurus.jpg




Heterodontosauridae Fruitadens.jpg




Eocursor


Genasauria

Lesothosaurus


Thyreophora

Scutellosaurus Scutellosaurus.jpg




Emausaurus




Scelidosaurus Scelidosaurus harrisonii.png




Stegosauria Stegosaurus BW.jpg



Ankylosauria Edmontonia dinosaur.png






Neornithischia

Stormbergia




Agilisaurus Agilisaurus2.jpg




Hexinlusaurus




Othnielosaurus


Cerapoda

Ornithopoda Parasaurolophuspic steveoc.jpg


Marginocephalia

Pachycephalosauria Pachycephalosauria jmallon.jpg



Ceratopsia Psittacosaurus mongoliensis whole BW.jpgTriceratops BW.jpg













Related pages

Heterodontosaurus skull reconstruction sereno 2012 edited
Heterodontosaurus skull with palpebral bone (red), antorbital fenestra (yellow) and predentary (green) colored.

Ornithischia Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.