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Raspberry Pi
Raspberry Pi Logo.svg
Raspberry Pi 4 Model B - Side.jpg
Raspberry Pi 4 Model B
Also known as RPi, Raspi
Release date
  • 24 February 2012; 9 years ago (2012-02-24) (Project)
  • 24 June 2019; 2 years ago (2019-06-24) (Current gen)
Introductory price
  • US$4.00 (Pi Pico)
  • US$35.00 (Pi 4 2 GB)
  • US$55.00 (Pi 4 4 GB)
  • US$75.00 (Pi 4 8 GB)
  • US$70.00 (Pi 400 4 GB)
Operating system Raspberry Pi OS
FreeBSD
Linux
NetBSD
OpenBSD
Plan 9
RISC OS
Windows 10 ARM64
Windows 10 IoT Core
and OS-less Embedded RTL's.
Power 5 V; 3 A (for full power delivery to USB devices)
System-on-chip used
  • Pi 3 A+: Broadcom BCM2837B0
  • Pi 4 B: Broadcom BCM2711B0
  • Zero W: Broadcom BCM2835
  • CM 3+: Broadcom BCM2837B0
CPU
Memory
  • Pi 3 A+: 512 MB LPDDR2 SDRAM
  • Pi 4 B: 2, 4, or 8 GB LPDDR4-3200 SDRAM
  • Zero W: 512 MB LPDDR2 SDRAM
  • CM 3+: 1 GB LPDDR2 SDRAM
Storage MicroSDHC slot, USB Mass Storage device for booting
Graphics
  • Pi 3 A+: Broadcom VideoCore IV 400 MHz
  • Pi 4 B: Broadcom VideoCore VI 500 MHz
  • Zero W: Broadcom VideoCore IV
  • CM 3+: Broadcom VideoCore IV

The Raspberry Pi is a series of single-board computers. They are low-cost, high-performance and the size of a credit card. The Raspberry Pi was developed in the UK by the Raspberry Pi Foundation. The Raspberry Pi Foundation's goal is to "advance the education of adults and children, particularly in the field of computers, computer science and related subjects." Many people have used Raspberry Pis to make things like cameras, video game consoles, robots, web servers and media centres.

Versions

There are lots of different versions of the Raspberry Pi, and each has different features.

All of the versions use a Broadcom 'system on a chip' (SoC) which contains an ARM-compatible central processing unit (CPU), random-access memory (RAM) and a graphics processing unit (GPU).

All versions use an SD card or MicroSD card for the operating system and file storage. They also have a 40-pin General-Purpose Input/Output (GPIO) connector, which can be used for controlling other electronics.

Some versions of the Raspberry Pi have an ethernet connector for connecting to the internet. Some versions can also use Wi-Fi to connect to the internet.

The Raspberry Pi comes in three different sizes. The 'standard' size is used for all Model B versions, and is 85.6 mm x 56.5 mm (3.370 in × 2.224 in). The 'compact' size is used for all Model A versions, and is 65 mm × 56.5 mm (2.56 in × 2.22 in). The 'zero' size is used for all Raspberry Pi Zero versions, and is 65 mm × 30 mm (2.56 in × 1.18 in).

Generations

Raspberry-Pi-Zero-FL
The Raspberry Pi Zero, a US$7 model first introduced in 2015
Raspberry Pi 3 B+ (39906369025)
The Raspberry Pi 3 B+, introduced in 2018
Raspberry Pi 4 Model B - Top
The Raspberry Pi 4 B, introduced in 2019
Raspberry pi pico
The Raspberry Pi Pico, introduced in 2021

Several generations of Raspberry Pis have been released. Raspberry Pi SBCs feature a Broadcom system on a chip (SoC) with an integrated ARM-compatible central processing unit (CPU) and on-chip graphics processing unit (GPU), while Raspberry Pi Pico has a RP2040 system on chip with an integrated ARM-compatible central processing unit (CPU).

The first generation (Raspberry Pi Model B) was released in February 2012, followed by the simpler and cheaper Model A. In 2014, the Foundation released a board with an improved design, Raspberry Pi Model B+. These first generation boards feature ARM11 processors, are approximately credit-card sized and represent the standard mainline form-factor. Improved A+ and B+ models were released a year later. A "Compute Module" was released in April 2014 for embedded applications.

The Raspberry Pi 2 was released in February 2015 and initially featured a 900 MHz 32-bit quad-core ARM Cortex-A7 processor with 1 GB RAM. Later versions featured a 1.2 GHz 64-bit quad-core ARM Cortex-A53 processor.

A Raspberry Pi Zero with smaller size and reduced input/output (I/O) and general-purpose input/output (GPIO) capabilities was released in November 2015 for US$5. On 28 February 2017, the Raspberry Pi Zero W was launched, a version of the Zero with Wi-Fi and Bluetooth capabilities, for US$10. On 12 January 2018, the Raspberry Pi Zero WH was launched, a version of the Zero W with pre-soldered GPIO headers.

Raspberry Pi 3 Model B was released in February 2016 with a 1.2 GHz 64-bit quad core ARM Cortex-A53 processor, on-board 802.11n Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and USB boot capabilities. On Pi Day 2018, the Raspberry Pi 3 Model B+ was launched with a faster 1.4 GHz processor, a three-times faster gigabit Ethernet (throughput limited to ca. 300 Mbit/s by the internal USB 2.0 connection), and 2.4 / 5 GHz dual-band 802.11ac Wi-Fi (100 Mbit/s). Other features are Power over Ethernet (PoE) (with the add-on PoE HAT), USB boot and network boot (an SD card is no longer required).

Raspberry Pi 4 Model B was released in June 2019 with a 1.5 GHz 64-bit quad core ARM Cortex-A72 processor, on-board 802.11ac Wi-Fi, Bluetooth 5, full gigabit Ethernet (throughput not limited), two USB 2.0 ports, two USB 3.0 ports, and dual-monitor support via a pair of micro HDMI (HDMI Type D) ports for up to 4K resolution. The Pi 4 is also powered via a USB-C port, enabling additional power to be provided to downstream peripherals, when used with an appropriate PSU. The initial Raspberry Pi 4 board has a design flaw where third-party e-marked USB cables, such as those used on Apple MacBooks, incorrectly identify it and refuse to provide power. Tom's Hardware tested 14 different cables and found that 11 of them turned on and powered the Pi without issue. The design flaw was fixed in revision 1.2 of the board, released in late 2019.

Raspberry Pi 400 (50586757772)
Raspberry Pi 400 Kit

Raspberry Pi 400 was released in November 2020. It features a custom board that is derived from the existing Raspberry Pi 4, specifically remodelled with a keyboard attached. A robust cooling solution similar to the one found in a Commodore 64 allows the Raspberry Pi 400's Broadcom BCM2711C0 processor to be clocked at 1.8 GHz, which is slightly higher than the Raspberry Pi 4 it's based on. The keyboard-computer features 4 GB of LPDDR4 RAM.

Raspberry Pi Pico was released in January 2021 with a retail price of $4. It was Raspberry Pi's first board based upon a single microcontroller chip; the RP2040, which was designed by Raspberry Pi in the UK. The Pico has 264 KB of RAM and 2 MB of flash memory. It is programmable in MicroPython, CircuitPython, and C. It has partnered with Adafruit, Pimoroni, Arduino and SparkFun to build Accessories for Raspberry Pi Pico and variety of other boards using RP2040 Silicon Platform. Rather than perform the role of general purpose computer (like the others in the range) it is designed for physical computing, similar in concept to an Arduino.

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