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Stephen Biko
Stephen Bantu Biko

(1946-12-18)18 December 1946
Died 12 September 1977(1977-09-12) (aged 30)
Occupation Activist
Spouse(s) Ntsiki Mashalaba
Children Nkosinathi Biko, Samora Biko, Lerato Biko, Motlatsi Biko and Hlumelo Biko

Stephen Bantu Biko (18 December 1946 – 12 September 1977) was a South African activist. He is famous for for his activism against apartheid in South Africa during the 1960s and 1970s. He created the Black Consciousness Movement.


Biko was born in Ginsberg Township (now called the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa). He started high school at Lovedale High School. However, he was kicked out of school because of his political ideas about South Africa. He finished high school at St. Francis College.

During the late 1960s, Biko was a medical student at the University of Natal. During this time, he helped create the South African Students' Organisation. The organization later changed into the Black Consciousness Movement, and elected Biko as its first president in 1968.

As a student, during the early 1970s, Biko fought against apartheid in many ways. Eventually, in 1972, he was kicked out of the University of Natal. In February 1973, the South African apartheid government banned Biko. This severely limited his freedom of speech.

Biko and the Black Consciousness Movement played key roles in organizing protests, led by South African high school students, that resulted in the Soweto Uprising.


Steven Bantu Biko's Grave in King Williams Town, South Africa

On 18 August 1977, Biko was arrested. He died on 12 September 1977 due to injuries he got while in police custody.

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