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Idiosoma
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Subphylum: Chelicerata
Class: Arachnida
Order: Araneae
Infraorder: Mygalomorphae
Family: Idiopidae
Genus: Idiosoma
Ausserer, 1871
Type species
I. sigillatum
(O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1870)
Species

29, see text

Synonyms
  • Aganippe O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1877
  • Anidiops Pocock, 1897

Idiosoma is a genus of Australian armored trapdoor spiders that was first described by Anton Ausserer in 1871. Originally placed with the Ctenizidae, it was moved to the armored trapdoor spiders in 1985. The name is derived from the Greek ἴδιος (idios), meaning "individual, unique", and σῶμα (soma), meaning "body", referring to the distinctive structure of the abdomen.

The skin of their opisthosoma is hardened, with a flattened end and deep grooves running along the sides. The thickened skin helps to reduce water loss in its dry habitat. It also serves as a kind of plug to shield itself from predators. This phenomenon is called phragmosis and occurs in perfection in the spider genus Cyclocosmia (Ctenizidae). However, some parasitic wasps have evolved paper-thin abdomens and long, slender ovipositors and lay their eggs on the softer skin at the front of the spider's opisthosoma.

It digs burrows up to 32 centimetres (13 in) deep, where the temperature is relatively constant during the seasons. When prey triggers any of the trip-lines radiating from the burrow's entrance, the spider runs out of the burrow to capture ants, beetles, cockroaches, millipedes and moths. This is unlike many trapdoor spiders that very rarely leave their burrow. Males actively look for females, and mating takes place in the female's burrow. She lays her eggs during late spring and early summer. The spiderlings hatch in mid-summer, and stay inside the burrow until early winter, when the climate gets more humid.

The Black rugose trapdoor spider (Idiosoma nigrum) can grow up to 30 millimetres (1.2 in) long. Males can grow up to 18 millimetres (0.71 in) in body length.

Species

As of May 2019 it contains twenty-nine species:

  • Idiosoma arenaceum Rix & Harvey, 2018 – Australia (Western Australia)
  • Idiosoma berlandi (Rainbow, 1914) – Australia (New South Wales)
  • Idiosoma castellum (Main, 1986) – Australia (Western Australia)
  • Idiosoma clypeatum Rix & Harvey, 2018 – Australia (Western Australia)
  • Idiosoma corrugatum Rix & Harvey, 2018 – Australia (South Australia)
  • Idiosoma cupulifex (Main, 1957) – Australia (Western Australia)
  • Idiosoma dandaragan Rix & Harvey, 2018 – Australia (Western Australia)
  • Idiosoma formosum Rix & Harvey, 2018 – Australia (Western Australia)
  • Idiosoma galeosomoides Rix, Main, Raven & Harvey, 2017 – Australia (Western Australia)
  • Idiosoma gardneri Rix & Harvey, 2018 – Australia (Western Australia)
  • Idiosoma gutharuka Rix & Harvey, 2018 – Australia (Western Australia)
  • Idiosoma incomptum Rix & Harvey, 2018 – Australia (Western Australia)
  • Idiosoma intermedium Rix & Harvey, 2018 – Australia (Western Australia)
  • Idiosoma jarrah Rix & Harvey, 2018 – Australia (Western Australia)
  • Idiosoma kopejtkaorum Rix & Harvey, 2018 – Australia (Western Australia)
  • Idiosoma kwongan Rix & Harvey, 2018 – Australia (Western Australia)
  • Idiosoma manstridgei (Pocock, 1897) – Australia (Western Australia)
  • Idiosoma mcclementsorum Rix & Harvey, 2018 – Australia (Western Australia)
  • Idiosoma mcnamarai Rix & Harvey, 2018 – Australia (Western Australia)
  • Idiosoma montanum (Faulder, 1985) – Australia (New South Wales)
  • Idiosoma nigrum Main, 1952 – Australia (Western Australia)
  • Idiosoma occidentale (Hogg, 1903) – Australia (Western Australia, South Australia)
  • Idiosoma planites (Faulder, 1985) – Australia (New South Wales)
  • Idiosoma rhaphiduca (Rainbow & Pulleine, 1918) – Australia (Western Australia)
  • Idiosoma schoknechtorum Rix & Harvey, 2018 – Australia (Western Australia)
  • Idiosoma sigillatum (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1870) (type) – Australia (Western Australia)
  • Idiosoma smeatoni (Hogg, 1902) – Australia (South Australia)
  • Idiosoma subtriste (O. Pickard-Cambridge, 1877) – Australia (South Australia)
  • Idiosoma winsori (Faulder, 1985) – Australia (Victoria)
  • Australian Museum Online (2003): Black Rugose Trapdoor Spider fact sheet — with picture
  • Main, Barbara York (1952): Notes on the genus Idiosoma, a supposedly rare Western Australian trap-door spider. W. Aust. Nat. 3: 130-137.
  • Main, Barbara York (1957): Biology of aganippine trapdoor spiders (Mygalomorphae: Ctenizidae). Aust. J. Zool. 5: 402-473.
  • Main, Barbara York (1985): Further studies on the systematics of ctenizid trapdoor spiders: A review of the Australian genera (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Ctenizidae). Aust. J. Zool. (suppl. Ser.) 108: 1-84.
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