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Kronstadt rebellion
Part of the left-wing uprisings against the Bolsheviks and the Russian Civil War
Date March 7–17, 1921
Kronstadt, Kotlin Island, Russian SFSR
60°00′45″N 29°44′01″E / 60.01250°N 29.73361°E / 60.01250; 29.73361
  • Bolshevik victory
  • Uprising suppressed
  • Petropavlovsk-Krondstadt flag.svg Soviet Baltic Fleet sailors
  • BlackFlag.svg Armed citizens of Kronstadt

 Russian SFSR

Commanders and leaders
Petropavlovsk-Krondstadt flag.svg Stepan Petrichenko
c. first 11,000, second assault: 17,961 c. first assault: 10,073, second assault: 25,000 to 30,000
Casualties and losses
c. 1,000 killed in battle and 1,200 to 2,168 executed Second assault: 527–1,412; a much higher number if the first assault is included

The Kronstadt rebellion or Kronstadt mutiny was a major unsuccessful uprising against the Bolsheviks in March 1921, during the later years of the Russian Civil War.

Led by Stepan Petrichenko and consisting of Russian sailors, soldiers, and civilians, the rebellion was one of the reasons that Vladimir Lenin and the Communist Party leaders decided to loosen their control of the Russian economy by implementing the New Economic Policy (NEP).

The rebellion originated in Kronstadt, a naval fortress on Kotlin Island in the Gulf of Finland that served as the base of the Russian Baltic Fleet and as a defense for the approaches to Petrograd, 55 kilometres (34 mi) away. The rebellion was crushed by the Red Army after a 12-day military campaign, resulting in several thousand deaths.

According to Lenin, the crisis was the most critical the regime had yet faced.

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