Parliamentary system facts for kids

Kids Encyclopedia Facts
Form of government parliamentary
States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. States denoted in green have the roles of head of state and head of government in one office, similar to presidential systems, but this office is filled by parliament's choice and elected separately

A parliamentary system of government means that the executive branch of government has the direct or indirect support of the parliament. This support is usually shown by a vote of confidence. The relationship between the executive and the legislature in a parliamentary system is called responsible government.

The separation of powers between the executive and law making branches, is not as obvious as it is in a presidential system, so there are different ways of balancing powers between the three branches which govern the country (the executive (or ministers), the law makers and the judges).

Parliamentary systems usually have a head of government and a head of state. The head of government is the prime minister, who has the real power. The head of state often is an elected (either popularly or through parliament) president or, in the case of a constitutional monarchy, hereditary.

Countries

Africa

Country Connection between the legislature and the executive
 Botswana Parliament of Botswana elects the President who appoints the Cabinet
 Ethiopia Federal Parliamentary Assembly appoints the Council of Ministers
 Mauritius National Assembly appoints the Cabinet of Mauritius
 Somalia Federal Parliament of Somalia elects the President who appoints the Prime Minister
 South Africa Parliament of South Africa elects the President who appoints the Cabinet

Americas

Centre Block - Parliament Hill
Parliament of Canada
Country Connection between the legislature and the executive
 Antigua and Barbuda Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Representatives of Antigua and Barbuda is appointed Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda by the Governor-General of Antigua and Barbuda, who then appoints the Cabinet of Antigua and Barbuda on the advice of the Prime Minister
 The Bahamas Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Assembly of the Bahamas is appointed Prime Minister of the Bahamas by the Governor-General of the Bahamas, who then appoints the Cabinet of the Bahamas on the advice of the Prime Minister
 Barbados Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Assembly of Barbados is appointed Prime Minister of Barbados by the Governor-General of Barbados, who then appoints the Cabinet of Barbados on the advice of the Prime Minister
 Belize Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Representatives of Belize is appointed Prime Minister of Belize by the Governor-General of Belize, who then appoints the Cabinet of Belize on the advice of the Prime Minister
 Canada Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Commons of Canada is appointed Prime Minister of Canada by the Governor General of Canada, who then appoints the Cabinet of Canada on the advice of the Prime Minister
 Dominica Parliament approves the Cabinet of Dominica
 Grenada Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Representatives of Grenada is appointed Prime Minister of Grenada by the Governor-General of Grenada, who then appoints the Cabinet of Grenada on the advice of the Prime Minister
 Jamaica Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Representatives of Jamaica is appointed Prime Minister of Jamaica by the Governor-General of Jamaica, who then appoints the Cabinet of Jamaica on the advice of the Prime Minister
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the National Assembly of Saint Kitts and Nevis is appointed Prime Minister of Saint Kitts and Nevis by the Governor-General of Saint Kitts and Nevis, who then appoints the Cabinet of Saint Kitts and Nevis on the advice of the Prime Minister
 Saint Lucia Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Assembly of Saint Lucia is appointed Prime Minister of Saint Lucia by the Governor-General of Saint Lucia, who then appoints the Cabinet of Saint Lucia on the advice of the Prime Minister
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the House of Assembly of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines is appointed Prime Minister of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines by the Governor-General of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, who then appoints the Cabinet of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines on the advice of the Prime Minister
 Suriname National Assembly elects the President, who appoints the Cabinet of Suriname
 Trinidad and Tobago Parliament of Trinidad and Tobago approves the Prime Minister of Trinidad and Tobago

Asia

Sansad Bhavan-2
Sansad Bhavan, parliament building of India
Baghdad Convention Center
Council of Representatives of Iraq
Knesset Building (South Side)
Knesset of Israel in Jerusalem
MalaysianParliament
Parliament of Malaysia
Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban (Roehl)
Jatiyo Sangshad Bhaban of Bangladesh
Country Connection between the legislature and the executive
 Bangladesh Jatiyo Sangshad approves the Cabinet of Bangladesh
 Bhutan Parliament of Bhutan approves the Lhengye Zhungtshog
 Cambodia Parliament of Cambodia approves the Council of Ministers
 India President of India appoints the leader of the political party or alliance that has the support of a majority in the Lok Sabha as Prime Minister of India, who then forms the Union Council of Ministers
 Iraq Council of Representatives approves the Cabinet of Iraq
 Israel Leader of the political party with the most Knesset seats in the governing coalition is appointed Prime Minister of Israel by the President of Israel. The Prime Minister then appoints the Cabinet of Israel.
 Japan National Diet nominates the Prime Minister who appoints the Cabinet of Japan
 Kuwait National Assembly approves the Crown Prince who appoints the Prime Minister who appoints the Cabinet of Kuwait
 Kyrgyzstan Supreme Council approves the Cabinet of Kyrgyzstan
 Lebanon Maronite Christian president is elected by the Parliament of Lebanon. He appoints the Prime Minister (a Sunni Muslim) and the cabinet. The Parliament thereafter approves the Cabinet of Lebanon through a vote of confidence (a simple majority).
 Malaysia Parliament of Malaysia appoints the Cabinet of Malaysia
 Myanmar Assembly of the Union, by an electoral college, elects the President who forms the Cabinet of Myanmar
   Nepal Parliament of Nepal elects the Prime Minister who, by turn, appoints the Cabinet of Nepal
 Pakistan Parliament of Pakistan appoints the Cabinet of Pakistan
 Singapore Parliament of Singapore approves the Cabinet of Singapore
 Thailand The Monarch appoints the MP nominated by in the House of Representatives (usually the leader of the largest party or coalition) as Prime Minister, who forms the Cabinet of Thailand. Under the current junta, the appointee is nominated by the National Legislative Assembly.

Europe

Zyrat te parlamentit
The administrative building of the Albanian Parliament
Congreso de los Diputados (España) 14
The Congress of Deputies, the lower chamber of Spanish Parliament
Country Connection between the legislature and the executive
 Albania Parliament of Albania approves the Cabinet of Albania
 Andorra
 Armenia National Assembly appoints and (no sooner than one year) can dismiss through the constructive vote of no confidence the Government of Armenia
 Austria In theory, chancellor and ministers are appointed by the President. As a practical matter, they are unable to govern without the support (or at least toleration) of a majority in the National Council. The cabinet is politically answerable to the National Council and can be dismissed by the National Council through a motion of no confidence.
 Belgium Federal Parliament approves the Cabinet of Belgium
 Bulgaria National Assembly appoints the Council of Ministers of Bulgaria
 Croatia Croatian Parliament approves President of Government and the Cabinet nominated by him/her.
 Czech Republic President of the Czech Republic appoints the leader of the largest party or coalition in the Chamber of Deputies of the Parliament as Prime Minister, who forms the Cabinet. The Prime Minister must gain a vote of confidence by the Chamber of Deputies.
 Denmark The Monarch appoints, based on recommendations from the leaders of the parties in Folketinget, the cabinet leader who is most likely to successfully assemble a Cabinet which will not be disapproved by a majority in Folketinget.
 Estonia Riigikogu elects the Prime Minister candidate nominated by the President of the Republic (normally this candidate is the leader of the parliamentary coalition of parties). The Government of the Republic of Estonia is later appointed by the President of the Republic under proposal of the approved Prime Minister candidate. The Riigikogu may remove the Prime Minister and any other member of the government through a motion of no confidence.
 Finland Parliament of Finland appoints the Cabinet of Finland
 Germany Bundestag elects the Federal Chancellor (after nomination from the President of Germany), who forms the Cabinet
 Greece Hellenic Parliament approves the Cabinet of Greece
 Hungary National Assembly approves the Cabinet of Hungary
 Iceland The President of Iceland appoints and discharges the Cabinet of Iceland. Ministers can not even resign without being discharged by presidential decree.
 Ireland Dáil Éireann nominates the Taoiseach, who is then appointed by the President of Ireland
 Italy Italian Parliament grants and revokes its confidence in the Cabinet of Italy, appointed by the President of Italy
 Kosovo Assembly of Kosovo appoints the Government of Kosovo
 Latvia Saeima appoints the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Latvia
 Luxembourg Chamber of Deputies appoints the Cabinet of Luxembourg
 Malta House of Representatives appoints the Cabinet of Malta
 Moldova Parliament of Moldova appoints the Cabinet of Moldova
 Montenegro Parliament of Montenegro appoints the Government of Montenegro
 Netherlands Second Chamber of the States-General can dismiss the Cabinet of the Netherlands through a motion of no confidence
 North Macedonia Assembly approves the Government of North Macedonia
 Norway The Monarch appoints the MP leading the largest party or coalition in Stortinget as Prime Minister, who forms the Cabinet
 San Marino
 Serbia National Assembly appoints the Government of Serbia
 Slovakia National Council approves the Government of Slovakia
 Slovenia National Assembly appoints the Government of Slovenia
 Spain The Congress of Deputies elects the President of the Government, who forms the Cabinet
 Sweden The Riksdag elects the Prime Minister, who in turn appoints the other members of the Government
 Switzerland A United Federal Assembly elects the members of the Swiss Federal Council
 United Kingdom The monarch appoints the MP leading the largest party or coalition in the House of Commons as Prime Minister, who forms the Cabinet

Oceania

Parlamento da Nova Zelândia
Parliament of New Zealand
Port Moresby parliament building front, by Steve Shattuck
National Parliament of Papua New Guinea
Country Connection between the legislature and the executive
 Australia Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the Australian House of Representatives is appointed Prime Minister of Australia by the Governor-General of Australia, who then appoints the Cabinet of Australia on the advice of the Prime Minister
 New Zealand Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the New Zealand House of Representatives is appointed Prime Minister of New Zealand by the Governor-General of New Zealand, who then appoints the Cabinet of New Zealand on the advice of the Prime Minister
 Papua New Guinea Leader of the political party that has the support of a majority in the National Parliament is appointed Prime Minister of Papua New Guinea by the Governor-General of Papua New Guinea, who then appoints the Cabinet of Papua New Guinea on the advice of the Prime Minister
 Samoa Legislative Assembly appoints the Cabinet of Samoa
 Vanuatu Parliament of Vanuatu appoints the Cabinet of Vanuatu

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