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Angeline Stickney
Angeline Stickney.jpg
Born (1830-11-01)November 1, 1830
Died July 3, 1892(1892-07-03) (aged 61)
Nationality American
Alma mater New-York Central College
Occupation Teacher, suffragist, and mathematician
Spouse(s) Asaph Hall

Chloe Angeline Stickney Hall (November 1, 1830 – July 3, 1892) was an American academic, suffragist, and mathematician. She was a teacher and later the wife of astronomer Asaph Hall. She did not use her first name and so was known as Angeline Stickney Hall. Stickney, the largest crater on Phobos, is named after her in recognition of her support for the satellite's discovery.


Angeline Stickney was born to Theophilus Stickney and Electa Cook on November 1, 1830. In 1847 she took three terms of study funded by her cousin, Harriette Downs, at Rodman Union Seminary. Stickney was able to attend New-York Central College with help from her sister Ruth and by teaching at the college. She majored in science and mathematics, doing coursework in calculus and mathematical astronomy, and graduated with the college's first class, in 1855. New-York Central College was a progressive school where students of modest means, including women and free African Americans, could earn a college degree. It was here that she became passionate about the causes of women's suffrage and the abolition of slavery.

Angeline Stickney and Asaph Hall met at Central College. Stickney was two years ahead of Hall. She was his instructor in geometry and German. During their days together as teacher and student, Hall and his classmates would devise questions and problems that they were convinced Stickney could not solve, yet she never failed to solve them.

Stickney and Hall married in Elkhorn, Wisconsin, on March 31, 1856. As was common at the time, she had to give up her academic career after the wedding. Immediately after the wedding, the couple moved to Ann Arbor, Michigan, so that Hall could continue his education at the University of Michigan. Three months later, they moved to Shalersville, Ohio. It was Stickney who communicated with her husband's employer, Captain Gillis, and successfully suggested that he should be made a professor at the Naval Observatory.

The Angeline and Asaph Hall house
Hall's former home in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D.C., after enlargement. Note Angeline on front steps and two Black workers. The house later served as the parsonage and fellowship hall of Alexander Memorial Baptist Church.

She encouraged him to continue his search for satellites of Mars when he was ready to give up, and he successfully discovered the moons Phobos and Deimos. However, when she asked for payment equal to a man's salary for her calculations, Asaph refused, so Angeline then discontinued her work.

The largest crater on Phobos, Stickney Crater, is named after her.

Hall home-schooled all four of her children, and all attended Harvard University. Her third son, Angelo Hall, a Unitarian minister, wrote her biography. Her oldest son, Asaph Hall, Jr., was born on October 6, 1859, and served as director of the Detroit Observatory from 1892 to 1905. Other sons were named Samuel (second son) and Percival (fourth son); Percival Hall (1872–1953) was the second president of Gallaudet University from 1910 to 1946 (he himself was not deaf).

She died at North Andover, Massachusetts, at age 61.

See also

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