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Drinking fountains in Philadelphia facts for kids

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Perkins Fountains in Philadelphia 1874
Fountains in Philadelphia (1874) by Granville Perkins. Counter-clockwise from top: First Fountain; Tyler Memorial Fountain; Washington Square Fountain; Lemon Hill Spring; Goldfish Pond Fountain; Peace Fountain; Rittenhouse Square Fountain; Mercury Fountain. Center: Mott's Cast Iron Fountain (Horticultural Center)

Public drinking fountains in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, have been built and used since the 19th century. Various reform-minded organizations in the city supported public drinking fountains as street furniture for different but overlapping reasons. One was the general promotion of public health, in an era of poor water and typhoid fever. Leaders of the temperance movement such as the Woman's Christian Temperance Union saw free, clean water as a crucial alternative to beer. Emerging animal welfare organizations, notably the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, wanted to provide water to the dogs and working horses of the city on humanitarian grounds, which is why Philadelphia's drinking fountains of the era often include curb-level troughs that animals could reach.

History

Background

'Fourth of July in Center Square' by John Lewis Krimmel
Fourth of July in Centre Square (c.1812) by John Lewis Krimmel. William Rush's Water Nymph and Bittern (1809) is at center.

Philadelphia suffered multiple yellow fever epidemics in the 1790s. The Philadelphia Watering Committee, formally the Joint Committee on Bringing Water to the City, was founded in 1797–98 with the mission of constructing a public water system to combat the disease. Scottish-born architect Benjamin Henry Latrobe designed the Philadelphia system, in which an underground brick aqueduct carried drinking water from the Schuylkill River to Centre Square, now the site of Philadelphia City Hall. There, twin steam pumps propelled the water into a tank in the tower of the pumping house, from which gravity distributed it throughout the city via wooden water mains (cored logs). Completed in January 1801, this was the first citywide gravity-fed public water system in the United States.

Latrobe's chief draftsman, Frederick Graff, designed a "T"-shaped wooden fire hydrant in 1802, that featured "a drinking fountain on one side and a 4-1/2-inch water main on the other." The hydrants were installed along every major street of the city.

Latrobe's Greek Revival pumping house and the gardens surrounding it became a major attraction. Graff was promoted to manager of the Water Works in 1805, and designed the fountain for Centre Square. The Watering Committee commissioned sculptor William Rush to create a statue, Allegory of the Schuylkill River, to be its centerpiece. Better known as Water Nymph with Bittern, it was carved from pine and painted white (in imitation of marble). The first public fountain in Philadelphia was unveiled in August 1809.

Drinking fountains

The idea of purpose-built drinking fountains was relatively novel. The first public drinking fountains in England appeared in Liverpool in 1854, through the efforts of Charles Pierre Melly, and that city had 43 in total by 1858. The first in London was a granite basin attached to the gates of St Sepulchre-without-Newgate, funded by Samuel Gurney and his Metropolitan Drinking Fountain and Cattle Trough Association in 1859.

First Public Fountain Fairmount Park (1904)
"First Fountain" (1854)

A spring-fed public drinking fountain was erected in 1854, along the Wissahickon Creek opposite Chestnut Hill. It was described in 1884 as:

The first fountain, so called, stands upon the side of the road on the west side of the Wissahickon ... It is claimed that this is the first drinking fountain erected in the county of Philadelphia outside of the Fairmount Water-Works. A clear, cold, mountain spring is carried by a spout, covered with a lion's head, from a niche in a granite front, with pilasters and pediment into a marble basin. The construction bears the date 1854 ... Upon a slab above the niche are cut the words "Pro bono publico"; beneath the basin these, "Esto perpetua".

In the 1860s, philanthropic groups and governments across the United States began to fund the building of water fountains, including the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in 1867 (in Union Square in New York City), and the Philadelphia Fountain Society beginning in April 1869. New fountains in Philadelphia proved immediately successful. They quickly proved their "utility and absolute necessity;" by September 1869 the Fountain Society had constructed 12, and the Pennsylvania branch of the ASPCA (PSPCA) had built another 5. As of 1880, the Philadelphia Fountain Society recorded 50 fountains serving approximately 3 million people and 1 million horses and other animals. Reformers continued installing such fountains throughout Philadelphia into the 1940s. Many remain.

In 2015, Philly Voice reported on plans to re-establish a system of public drinking fountains in the city.

Sponsors

Philadelphia Fountain Society

Fountain on Walnut Street-Rittenhouse Square (Philadelphia)
Rittenhouse Square Fountain (1872), 19th & Walnut Streets

The earliest and most prolific fountain-building organization was the Philadelphia Fountain Society, headed by medical doctor and art collector Wilson Cary Swann (1806–1876) and formally incorporated on April 21, 1869, with the stated mission of developing water fountains and water troughs for Philadelphia. "[O]ur object", wrote Swann, "is the erection and maintenance in this city of public drinking fountains for the health and refreshment of the people of Philadelphia and the benefit of dumb animals".

The society hoped that water fountains would directly improve quality-of-life for workers and working animals in the city, and indirectly promote temperance; Swann felt that "the lack of water for workers and animals led to intemperance and crime", and that drinking fountains positioned around the city would help "workers quench their thirst in public instead of entering local taverns". Some of Swann's arguments may have been derived from the like-minded London Metropolitan Drinking Fountain and Cattle Trough Association, established in 1859.

The fountains themselves were intended to be more functional than decorative, although many of them incorporate work by significant architects and sculptors. The society reached out to Philadelphians, advertising $5 for an annual membership, or $150 for a lifetime membership.

The society's first fountain went up in April 1869, adjacent to Washington Square, at 7th and Walnut Streets. A cast iron eagle perched on top, and below the plaque were two troughs, one for horses, one for dogs. (It was relocated to the south side of the square in 1916.) That same year, work began on two fountains for the 500 block of Chestnut Street, in front of Independence Hall. Prominent citizens such as John Wanamaker and Anthony Joseph Drexel provided funding to the society, and by July there were five operational fountains. Two years later, forty three fountains were managed by the society. The society installed three fountains on Rittenhouse Square, the first outside the iron fence at the square's northwest corner; the others within the iron fence at its northeast and southeast corners. Persistent flooding around the fountains created a nuisance, and the society removed them by 1884.

Swann handled a large portion of the society's work, and by 1874 it had erected 73 fountains. On April 17, 1874, Adelaide Neilson performed a concert to benefit the society at the Academy of Music.

The society had challenges. While rapidly constructing new fountains, it struggled to fund ongoing maintenance. In the 1870s, the city budgeted some money for upkeep, but that practice was ended by 1880. The city was hard on its drinking fountains. That first fountain at 7th and Walnut, which was "at all times surrounded by a thirsty crowd" as of 1896, had its iron eagle "blown over" to land on a boy and break his arm, resulting in civil damages, then its fortified replacement eagle was squarely broken off by a tree branch.

The destruction of fountains by boys and men with vandalistic tendencies, has to be constantly watched for and guarded against. Truck drivers and dragmen with heavy wagons also, by their carelessness, damage the fountains, and it is no uncommon thing for a fountain to be entirely knocked over by the pole of a brewery wagon ... the majority of the fountains ... erected now-a-days, are built low down, below the range of a wagon pole.

Swann died in 1876. By 1892, the number of fountains managed by the society had declined to 60. That year, Swann's wife died and left $80,000 to the society, as well as $25,000 for the construction of a fountain in his memory. By 1910, the number of horses in Philadelphia was decreasing as automobiles and streetcars gained in popularity, decreasing the need for fountains. After the completion of its last grand project, the Swann Memorial Fountain in Logan Circle in 1924, the society ceased building fountains. At its peak, the society had managed 82 fountains. It still exists as a grant-providing organisation.

Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals

The Fountain Society was linked to the Pennsylvania branch of the newly formed American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, co-founded in June 1868 by Colonel Mark Richards Muckle of the Public Ledger. The two had shared motivations, and Swann was involved in both. As of September 1869, press reports claimed "a very commendable rivalry in the erection of drinking fountains for man and beast will spring up between those two admirable associations", the Fountain Society with twelve in operation so far, and the Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (PSPCA) credited with five, all fountains which had "proven their utility and absolute necessity" with more to come. Some of these featured a curb-level trough for small animals, and a separate drinking fountain for people.

By 1869, the activist Caroline Earle White had grown frustrated with her exclusion from any decision-making role in the PSPCA, which she had helped to found. She created a Women's Branch, essentially an auxiliary, which also independently commissioned the construction of public drinking fountains and horse troughs. White founded the American Anti-Vivisection Society in Philadelphia in 1883. She created its monthly magazine, Journal of Zoöphily, in 1892, and worked as editor for 25 years.

Women's Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals

White fully broke away from the PSPCA in 1899, founding the independent Women's Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, or WPSPCA. The WPSPCA became co-publisher of Journal of Zoöphily, which promoted its good works. White was assisted by the efforts and financial support of the WPSPCA's vice-president, Annie L. Lowry, the childless widow of a successful Philadelphia lawyer. Lowry sponsored horse fountains at Walnut & Dock Streets and 8th & Porter Streets, and more were erected in her memory. Lowry made $58,000 in bequests to the WPSPCA in her 1908 will, including $10,000 "for erecting fountains in Philadelphia for horses and smaller animals," and $20,000 to establish the first animal shelter in the United States.

A crusade is being conducted in Philadelphia, and has been for six years past, by the members of the Women's Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.

In 1906, Mrs. Bradbury Bedell, a member of the Women's Society who had long been active in seeking better conditions for animals in Philadelphia, and the late Mrs. A. L. Lowry, another woman who for years had sought successfully to aid in the comfort of the dumb beasts, debated over the filthiness of many of the water troughs located around the city. They made personal appeals in many cases to saloon keepers where they found trough conditions especially flagrant. Sometimes their efforts were successful, and again the women's appeals were passed by unnoticed.
Then the thought came to them that the society could in time establish sufficient stations to crush out the horse trough evil, and the campaign was started. In six years the results have been even more than the originators had anticipated. To-day the society owns forty fountains and troughs throughout the city. Conditions at many other fountains have been greatly improved, and horse owners have been aroused to the danger.

The city authorities have cheerfully aided the Women's Society here by furnishing the supply of water free for all the stations and in other ways. Many heads of stores and establishments which have a large supply of horses have also responded to the society's efforts on behalf of the horse. They know what it means from a commercial as well as a humane standpoint.

As of 1928 the WPSPCA still ran a veterinary hospital in the city, an animal refuge, owned and maintained 50 street fountains open all year, and put up additional seasonal horse-watering stations in the city from May through November.

Temperance organizations

During the season from April to November [the fountains] are so constantly patronized in busy portions of the city that water is at all times spilt over the surrounding pavement [...] –The Times, October 9, 1892

The Woman's Christian Temperance Union also commissioned fountains.

The local membership of the Sons of Temperance funded a drinking fountain, originally installed under a pergola at the 1876 Centennial Exposition and later moved to Independence Square in 1877. As advertised, it provided ICE WATER FREE TO ALL.

Also for the 1876 exposition the German-American sculptor Herman Kirn produced the elaborate Catholic Total Abstinence Union Fountain. This included five figures, Moses in the middle, and sixteen drinking fountains installed into granite pedestals.

Notable drinking fountains

NOTE: Some entries in this table overlap the entries in Drinking fountains in the United States. Neither table is an exhaustive list.
Name Date Image Location Sponsor/Designer Material Notes Ref(s)
"First Fountain" 1854 First Fountain Sept 2020.JPG Forbidden Drive, Wissahickon Valley (between Wises Mill Road & Bells Mill Road) John Cook and Charles Magargé white marble
First Fountain plaque Sept 2020.JPG
Interpretive panel beside the "First Fountain":
"Half a mile above Valley Green is a marble drinking fountain, erected in 1854—the first built in Philadelphia. It is supplied from a mountain spring, and the water is clear and cold. … John Cook and Charles Magargé presented this fountain to the Park Commission for public use."
Sealed in 1957 because of water pollution
Peace Fountain 1865 Peace Fountain 1865 Fairmount Water Works.jpg Fairmount Water Works, South Garden
(west of Philadelphia Museum of Art)
brownstone
Peace Fountain (9101154911).jpg
Peace Fountain, c.1870:
A wall fountain set against a granite cliff.
The inscription, "Peace June 1865," refers to the month in which the last fighting of the Civil War ended (in Texas).
Washington Square Fountain 1869 Drinking fountain, Washington Square, Philadelphia.jpg

Fountain Washington Sq, Locust, Philly.JPG
Original: 7th & Walnut Streets (north side of Washington Square)

Current: 615 S. Washington Square
(south side of Washington Square)
Philadelphia Fountain Society granite
Philadelphia & Its Environs 1876 p.39.jpg
Installed along the square's north side, 1869:
"Outside the railing of this square, on a line with Seventh Street is a stone fountain surmounted by an eagle standing on a globe, which is noteworthy as being the first of these benevolent structures in providing which the Philadelphia Fountain Society has already earned the gratitude of thousands of thirsty men and suffering beasts."
Relocated to the square's south side, 1916
Listed on the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places
Tyler Memorial Fountain

Horse Trough at 312 Arch Street
1869 Detroit Photographic Company (0752).jpg

Tyler Fountain street 5-Oct-2020.jpg
Original: 500 block of Chestnut Street (in front of Independence Hall)

Current: 312 Arch Street (in front of Arch Street Friends Meeting House)
Philadelphia Fountain Society granite
Tyler Fountain sidewalk 5-Oct-2020.jpg
Two PFS fountains were installed on Chestnut Street in front of Independence Hall, 1869. One was sponsored by Mrs. F. Tyler, the other by merchant John Wanamaker.
"The State-House pumps were very near, if not exactly, upon the spot where fountains, surmounted by vases and intended to be decorated by flowers or shrubbery, were afterward placed by the Philadelphia Fountain Society."
The Wanamaker fountain was hit by a car in the 1940s, and removed.
The Tyler fountain was relocated to 312 Arch Street, 1942
Listed on the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places
Lemon Hill Spring
(Marble Drinking Fountain)
(Lion's Head Fountain)
circa 1870 Sinclair Spring at Lemon Hill 1870.jpg Kelly Drive & Sedgeley Drive, East Fairmount Park white marble
Lincoln Monument, from Robert N. Dennis collection of stereoscopic views 4.jpg
In the background (left) of the Lincoln Monument (1871):


Lemon Hill Fountain 5-Oct-2020.jpg
In 2020:
In Aqua Sanitas Fountain 1870-1871 In Aqua Sanitas 5-Oct-2020.jpg Martin Luther King Jr. Drive, West Fairmount Park (south of Falls Bridge) granite Inscription: "In Aqua Sanitas" ("In Water Health")
"Drinking fountain and water trough, west side of West River drive, just south of Falls Bridge."
Horse trough 1870-1871 Horse trough 1871 MLK Drive.jpg Martin Luther King Jr. Drive & Montgomery Drive, West Fairmount Park granite "Drinking fountain and water trough, west side of West River drive, just south of Columbia Bridge."
No inscription; drinking fountain removed
Catholic Total Abstinence Union Fountain 1874–1877 Centennial Fountain, 1876. Fairmount Park, Philadelphia. Erected under the auspices of the Catholic Total Abstinence Union of America.jpg
LOC Temperance Fountain and Staues, Philadelphia 1891.jpg
Fountain Drive, West Fairmount Park (west of Belmont Avenue) Catholic Total Abstinence Union
Herman Kirn, designer and sculptor
granite
Father Mat Catholic abs.JPG
Erected on the fairgrounds of the 1876 Centennial Exposition, and dedicated July 4, 1876. Cost: $60,000
16 drinking fountains—located on the four granite pedestals of the subordinate statues.
Water was supplied from a reservoir atop Georges Hill.
Georges Hill Reservoir is now the site of the Mann Music Center.
Temperance Fountain 1876 Temperance Drinking Fountain 1876 FLP.jpg Original: 1876 Centennial Exposition fairgrounds

Current: in storage
Grand Division of the Sons of Temperance cast iron
Sons of Temperance Fountain Philadelphia 1961.jpg
Installed under a 13-sided gazebo at the 1876 Centennial Exposition. Cost: $2,300.
"At the close of the Centennial, the Sons of Temperance removed the fountain to Independence Square, where they supply it with ice at their own cost from June to October every year."
Installed outside Independence Hall, 1877–1969.
Placed in storage, 1969
Lion's Head Fountain 1878 Lion's Head Fountain c.1895 Kelly Drive.jpg Original: Lincoln Drive, Wissahickon Valley

Current: Kelly Drive, East Fairmount Park (south of Strawberry Mansion Bridge)
Fairmount Park Art Association
Mrs. Richard Davis Wood, donor
granite
Lion's Head Fountain Wissahickon c.1895.jpg
In its original location, c.1895. Note the metal cup chained to the fountain:
Relocated to Kelly Drive, year
Ancient Roman Sarcophagus

Kates Horse Trough
c.200-225 A.D.

1879
Wissahickon sarcophagus angled.jpg Forbidden Drive (west of intersection with Lincoln Drive) Fairmount Park Art Association
Clarence S. Kates, donor
Italian white marble
Wissahickon Sarcophagus detail.jpg
Detail: Woman Riding a Sea-Centaur:
A highly-carved ancient Roman sarcophagus, repurposed as a horse trough, and installed at MacFarland Spring, 1879. Destroyed by vandalism.
Original dimensions: H. 28 in (71 cm) x W. 69 in (180 cm) x D. 26 in (66 cm)
Dr. Donald White, of the University of Pennsylvania, dates it to "the first quarter of the 3rd century AD."

"HORSE TROUGH. Presented by Clarence S. Kates. Accepted by the Commissioners of Fairmount Park, December 15th, 1878, and placed on the Wissahickon Drive, near the site of the Old Log Cabin."

Orestes and Pylades Fountain 1884 Orestes and Pylades 5-Oct-2020.jpg 33rd Street & Reservoir Drive, East Fairmount Park (Oxford Street Entrance) Fairmount Park Art Association
Carl Johann Steinhäuser, sculptor (original marble)
Herman Kirn, designer
bronze & granite
Orestes and Pylades Steinhoeuser signature.JPG
Steinhäuser's 1871 marble sculpture is located in the Palace Park, Karlsruhe, Germany.
Kirn owned his late teacher's plaster model, from which this was cast in bronze.
"Cast by Bureau Brothers, Philadelphia. Mounted on a pedestal of Richmond granite, with streams of water pouring from four bronze masks. Placed near Columbia Avenue Entrance to the East Park, south of the great Receiving Reservoir, in September, 1884."
Catharine Thorn Memorial Fountain 1890 Catharine Thorn Fountain 1890 South St.JPG 23rd Street, South Street & Grays Ferry Avenue Women's Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals granite Inscription: "The Legacy of Catharine Thorn by the W. P. S. P. C. A."
Funded with $1000 Thorn left to the Society in her will.
Installed at the center of a paved plaza bounded by South Street, 23rd Street and Grays Ferry Avenue.
Now the center of a triangular pocket park
Forepaugh Horse Trough 1895 Forepaugh Fountain 4-Oct-2020.jpg Fairhill Square, 4th Street & Lehigh Avenue Philadelphia Fountain Society
M. H. Gregg, maker
granite
Forepaugh Fountain maker 4-Oct-2020.jpg
Inscription: "Presented to the Philadelphia Fountain Society by a Lady"
Maker's mark:
William Leonidas Springs Fountain 1899 Springs Fountain 1899 Lincoln Drive.JPG Lincoln Drive, Wissahickon Valley (between Gypsy Lane & Forbidden Drive) Jeanette S. Springs, donor granite
Springs Fountain 1899 Lincoln Drive detail.JPG
"In October, 1899, a granite fountain was erected on the Wissahickon Drive at the Old Log Cabin spring by Miss Jeanette S. Springs, in memory of her father, William Leonidas Springs."
An exedra, with a pedimented wall fountain and horse trough at center and a drinking fountain at each end.
Sealed in the 1940s because of water pollution
Class of 1892 Drinking Fountain
The Scholar and the Football Player
1900 Quadrangle Dormitories
University of Pennsylvania
37th & Spruce Streets
University of Pennsylvania Class of 1892, sponsor
Alexander Stirling Calder, designer and sculptor
bronze & granite
Foliage at Penn 2005 035.jpg
Bronze; result of a $2500 fund raised by alumni; "the student appears in cap and gown, while, seated at his side, is the athlete, in football armor and with a 'pigskin' held firmly in his arm."
Located under the North Arcade, between the Memorial Tower and the North Steps
Grace and Beauty Fountain c.1901 "Grace and Beauty" (9045451920).jpg Horticultural Center, West Fairmount Park white marble
Bell H. Crump Fountain 1907 NHR April1917 p.76.jpg Original: Broad Street, Fairmount Avenue & Ridge Avenue

Current: 350 E. Erie Avenue
Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals granite
Crump Fountain 4-Oct-2020.jpg

Crump Fountain year 4-Oct-2020.jpg
Installed at the intersection of Broad Street, Fairmount Avenue, and Ridge Avenue, 1907 (opposite the Divine Lorraine Hotel)
Inscription: "Erected by Bell H. Crump 1907"
Relocated 1954
Now installed in front of the Pennsylvania SPCA Philadelphia Veterinary Clinic:
Mary Rebecca Darby Smith Memorial Fountain
Rebecca at the Well
1908 Smith Fountain 12th & Spring Garden ca.1908.jpg

Rebecca Well Hort Center Philly.JPG
Original: 12th & Spring Garden Streets (on median strip)

Current: Horticultural Drive, West Fairmount Park
Philadelphia Fountain Society
John J. Boyle, sculptor
bronze & red granite Funded with $5000 left to the Society by Smith, and based on her own design
Inscription: "Drink and I will give thy camels drink also"
Installed at 12th & Spring Garden Streets, 1908
Removed and placed in storage, 1922
Installed in West Fairmount Park, 1934
Annie L. Lowry Memorial Fountain 1909 Annie L. Lowry Memorial Fountain Philadelphia.jpg 3rd & Bainbridge Streets (on median strip) Women's Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
John Sheehan's Marble & Granite Works, 3805-7 Woodland Ave., Phila., maker
granite
Lowry 1909 E side.jpg
Erected at a cost of $1,500, with money left in Lowry's will.
Inscriptions: "Drink Gentle Friends." "In Memory of Annie L. Lowry 1910." "W. P. S. P. C. A."
Dedicated by Caroline Earle White on May 12, 1909
Listed on the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places
Annie L. Lowry Memorial Horse Trough 1910 Lowry Fountain 2nd St 5-Oct-2020.jpg Original: Fairmount Avenue & 21st Street?

Current: 147 N. 2nd Street (in front of Fireman's Hall Museum)
Women's Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
John Sheehan's Marble & Granite Works, 3805-7 Woodland Ave., Phila., maker
granite
Fireman's Hall Museum 147 N 2nd Street.jpg
Inscription: "The Gift of Mrs. A. L. Lowry."
Relocated to Engine Company #8, 2nd & Quarry Streets.
The former firehouse is now the Fireman's Hall Museum:
Listed on the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places
Annie L. Lowry Memorial Horse Trough 1910 Lowry Memorial Horse Trough 1910 Roxborough High School.JPG Original: 69th Street Terminal?

Current: Ridge Avenue & Fountain Street (in front of Roxborough High School)
Women's Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
John Sheehan's Marble & Granite Works, 3805-7 Woodland Ave., Phila., maker
granite Inscription: "In Memory of Mrs. Annie L. Lowry. Women's Pa. S. P. C. A."
Annie L. Lowry Memorial Horse Trough 1910 Original: Newtown Square?

Current: Women's Animal Center, 3839 Richlieu Road, Bensalem
Women's Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
John Sheehan's Marble & Granite Works, 3805-7 Woodland Ave., Phila., maker
granite Relocated to E. Logan Street, east of Stenton Avenue, when?
Relocated to Women's Animal Center, 2019
Annie L. Lowry Memorial Horse Trough 1910 Original: Lansdowne?

Current: Nitre Hall, 1682 Karakung Drive, Haverford
Women's Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
John Sheehan's Marble & Granite Works, 3805-7 Woodland Ave., Phila., maker
granite Inscription: In Memory of Mrs. Annie L. Lowry Women's Pa. S. P. C. A.
Unveiled November 28, 1910
Relocated from Burmont & Glendale Roads to Powder Mill Valley Park, 1973
Relocated to grounds of Nitre Hall, 2019
Edward Wetherill Memorial Fountain

Horse Trough at 315 S 9th St
circa 1910 Water trough 9th St. Philly.JPG 315 S. 9th Street (north of Pine Street) Philadelphia Fountain Society granite
GENERAL VIEW, TROUGH - Water Trough and Fountain, Ninth Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA HABS PA,51-PHILA,668-1.tif
Inscription: "A merciful man is merciful to his beast" (front)
Inscription: "Edward Wetherill 1821 — 1908" (rear, in niche)
Listed on the Philadelphia Register of Historic Places
John Harrison Memorial Fountain circa 1910 Harrison Fountain 4-Oct-2020.jpg Kelly Drive, East Fairmount Park (south of Fountain Green Drive) limestone Inscription: "In memory of John Harrison 1834 — 1909"
"The Harrison Memorial Lithia Spring and Water Trough"
Annie L. Lowry Memorial Horse Trough 1913 Aldan Borough Women's Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals
John Sheehan?
granite Inscription: "Del. Co. S. P. C. A."
Harriett S. French Fountain 1914 French Fountain side.jpg Belmont Avenue, West Fairmount Park (north of Montgomery Drive) Women's Christian Temperance Union granite
French Fountain sidewalk.jpg
Inscriptions: "Harriet S. French, M.D." (street side); "W. C. T. U." (sidewalk side)
"Harriet S. French Fountain, east side of Belmont avenue, about 50 yards north of Belmont [Montgomery] drive."
Dr. Harriet Schneider French was president of the Women's Christian Temperance Union of Philadelphia.
Lion's Head Drinking Fountain (Penn Museum) circa 1915 Calder Lion Head Fountain Penn Museum.jpg University of Pennsylvania Museum (South Street sidewalk)
33rd & South Streets
Alexander Stirling Calder, sculptor white marble & granite
MUSEUM ENTRANCE - University of Pennsylvania, University Museum, 3620 South Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA HABS PA,51-PHILA,566A-4.tif
At center, below the entrance steps:
J. William White Memorial Drinking Fountain 1921 Rittenhouse Square - autumn - IMG 6548.JPG Rittenhouse Square
(Walnut Street, between 18th & 19th Streets)
Rittenhouse Square Flower Market Association
Paul Philippe Cret, architect
R. Tait McKenzie, sculptor
limestone & bronze
J William White Memorial (closeup).png
Dr. J. William White was a prominent surgeon and professor at the University of Pennsylvania.
Sarah Cresson Memorial Horse Trough 1922 Cresson Fountain 4-Oct-2020.JPG Original: Front Street & Erie Avenue

Current:3rd & Spring Garden Streets (NE corner)
Women's Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals granite Cresson bequeathed funds to the Women's PSPCA for three horse troughs, all installed in 1922.
Sarah Cresson Memorial Horse Trough 1922 Cresson Fountain Broad&Oregon 5-Oct-2020.jpg Broad Street, Oregon Avenue & Moyamensing Avenue Women's Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals granite Inscription: "In Memoriam Sarah Cresson 1922"
Installed on a traffic island, north of Marconi Plaza
Sarah Cresson Memorial Horse Trough 1922 Windrim Avenue (west of Broad Street) Women's Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals granite Inscription: "In Memoriam Sarah Cresson 1922"
This may originally have been installed on the adjacent traffic island, formed by Broad Street, Windrim Avenue and Ruscomb Street.
Two Standing Birds Fountain (Penn Museum) circa 1926-1929 Calder Two Birds Fountain Penn Museum.jpg University of Pennsylvania Museum (East Courtyard)
33rd & South Streets
Alexander Stirling Calder, sculptor
Day & Klauder, architects
white marble
Lemon Hill Pet Fountain Lemon Hill Pet Fountain 5-Oct-2020.jpg Sedgeley Drive, East Fairmount Park (north of Kelly Drive, beside Goldfish Pond Fountain) granite Inscription: "John IV. 13. Whosoever drinketh of this water shall thirst again"

Unlocated or destroyed drinking fountains

Name Date Image Location Designer/Sponsor Material Notes Ref(s)
Iron Spring Fountain (Mineral Spring) 1871 Iron Spring, Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pa, from Robert N. Dennis collection of stereoscopic views 2.jpg Sedgeley Drive, east of Lemon Hill cast iron
Sedgeley Drinking Fountain 1871 Sedgeley Guard House, Fairmount Park, from Robert N. Dennis collection of stereoscopic views 2.jpg Sedgeley Guard House cast iron
Rittenhouse Square Fountain 1872 Fountain on Walnut Street-Rittenhouse Square (Philadelphia).png 19th & Walnut Streets (NW corner Rittenhouse Square, outside iron fence) Philadelphia Fountain Society cast iron Removed by 1884
Church of the Holy Trinity later sponsored a drinking fountain, possibly at this site.
Mercury Fountain 1872 Fountain in Rittenhouse Square (9246569445).jpg 18th & Walnut Streets (NE corner Rittenhouse Square, inside iron fence) Philadelphia Fountain Society
J. Gillingham Fell, donor
cast iron Cost: $3,500
Relocated to 42nd Street & Woodland Avenue, by 1884. No longer at that location.
Danaide Fountain 1872 Fountain. Rittenhouse Square. ca. 1880. (6721017609).jpg 18th & Locust Streets (SE corner Rittenhouse Square, inside iron fence) Philadelphia Fountain Society cast iron
The fountain's four corbels each supported a (zinc?) figure of Theodor Kalide's Boy with Swan.
Removed by 1884
5 French drinking fountains 1878 The picturesque of Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, by Chase, W. M. (William M.), 1818 - 9-1905.jpg East Fairmount Park Fairmount Park Art Association bronzed cast iron "FIVE FOUNTAINS.* Cast at Paris, France, at the Foundry of Val D'Osne. Purchased by the Association, and erected with basins, hydraulic fitments, etc., at the expense of the Association, in the Park near the Lincoln Monument. Accepted by the Commissioners of Fairmount Park, December 8th, 1877.
* Two have been placed near East River Drive below Girard Avenue Bridge."
All 5 drinking fountains were still in use in 1915.
Norris Square Fountain 1891 Susquehanna Avenue (between Hancock Street & Howard Street) Women's Christian Temperance Union Inscriptions: "I will give unto him that is athirst of the Water of Life freely." "Erected by the Sixth Young Women's Christian Temperance Union, July, 1891."
Annie L. Lowry Fountain 1906 John S. James Memorial Episcopal Church, 8th & Porter Streets Women's Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Dedicated July 1, 1906
Church now demolished
Annie L. Lowry Fountain 1906 Dock & Walnut Streets Women's Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Barre granite Dedicated October 22, 1906
Harriett S. French Memorial Fountain 1909 Grays Ferry Avenue, 25th Street & Christian Street (opposite Philadelphia Naval Asylum) Women's Christian Temperance Union granite Inscription: "Erected to the glory of God, by the Harriet S. French Young Women's Christian Temperance Union and the Loyal Temperance Legion of Holy Trinity Memorial chapel"
"The fountain is 8 feet 4 inches high, and has bowls for both horses and dogs, and is provided with an ample ice reservoir, which will be kept full by the Union and school."
Archbishop Ryan Memorial Watering Station 1911 Broad & Arch Streets Women's Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Dedicated June 6, 1911
Funded by a bequest from Annie L. Lowry
In operation seasonally, from June to September. Attendants brought individual pails of water to the horses (to discourage the spread of glanders). Featured a drive-thru shower for cooling the horses.
Martin Hetzel Memorial Fountain 1915 Lehigh Avenue & Waterloo Street Women's Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals granite Dedicated September 1, 1915
Emmeline Reed Bedell Memorial Fountain 1920 Dock Street and Delaware Avenue Women's Pennsylvania Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals granite Bedell was "founder of the Auxiliary, and who twenty-five years ago established the first public watering places in this city. It bears the inscription, "In Memory of Emmeline Reed Bedell, 1920," carved in the granite at the base."
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