John Gurdon facts for kids
|John Bertrand Gurdon|
|Born||2 October 1933
|Institutions||University of Oxford
University of Cambridge
California Institute of Technology
|Alma mater||Christ Church, Oxford|
|Doctoral advisor||Michael Fischberg|
|Known for||Nuclear transfer, cloning|
|Notable awards||Wolf Prize in Medicine (1989)
Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research Award (2009)
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (2012)
Sir John Bertrand Gurdon (JBG) FRS (born 2 October 1933) is a British developmental biologist. He is best known for his pioneering research in nuclear transplantation, and cloning. He was awarded the Lasker Award in 2009 and the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2012.
Honours and awards
Gurdon was made a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1971, and was knighted in 1995. In 2004, the Wellcome Trust/Cancer Research UK Institute for Cell Biology and Cancer was renamed the Gurdon Institute in his honour. He has also received numerous awards, medals and honorary degrees. He has been awarded the 2009 Albert Lasker Basic Medical Research award.
In 2012 Gurdon was awarded, jointly with Shinya Yamanaka, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine "for the discovery that mature cells can be reprogrammed to become pluripotent". "Pluripotent" cells are stem cells.
In 1958, Gurdon, then at the University of Oxford, successfully cloned a frog using intact nuclei from the somatic cells of a Xenopus tadpole. This was an important extension of work of Briggs and King in 1952 on transplanting nuclei from embryonic blastula cells.
Gurdon’s experiments captured the attention of the scientific community and the tools and techniques he developed for nuclear transfer are still used today.
Messenger RNA expression
Gurdon and colleagues also pioneered the use of Xenopus (genus of highly aquatic frog) eggs and oocytes to translate microinjected messenger RNA molecules. This technique has been widely used to identify the proteins encoded, and to study their function.
Gurdon's recent research has focused on analysing intercellular signalling factors involved in cell differentiation, and on elucidating the mechanisms involved in reprogramming the nucleus in transplantation experiments, including demethylation of the transplanted DNA.
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