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Malcolm Knowles facts for kids

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Malcolm Shepard Knowles (August 24, 1913 – November 27, 1997) was an American educator. He was active in developing theories of adult education. His ideas about self-directed learning have gained international recognition.

Biographical information

Malcolm Shepard Knowles was born on August 24, 1913 in Montana. His family moved to West Palm Beach, Florida, when he was a young boy. He graduated from Palm Beach High School in 1930. In 1934, he graduated from Harvard University with a Bachelor of Arts. Soon after graduation he married Hulda Fornell. From 1940 to 1943, he worked as Director of Adult Education at the Boston Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA). He was drafted into the United States Navy in 1943. In 1946, he moved to Chicago to work as the Director of Adult Education at that YMCA. During that time, he also worked on a Master of Arts at the University of Chicago. He earned the masters degree in 1949. He continued his studies at the University of Chicago, earning his PhD. He then spent 14 years at Boston University as an associate professor of adult education with tenure. He became a member of the faculty of North Carolina State University School of Education in 1974. He also taught at Fielding Graduate University in Santa Barbara, CA and at the University of Arkansas. He died of a stroke on November 27, 1997 in Fayetteville, Arkansas.

Selected bibliography

  • Knowles, M. S., & Knowles, H. F. (1955). How to develop better leaders. New York: Association Press.
  • Knowles, M. S., & Knowles, H. F. (1959). Introduction to group dynamics. Chicago: Association Press. Revised edition 1972 *published by New York: Cambridge Books.
  • Knowles, M. S. (1968). Andragogy, not pedagogy. Adult Leadership, 16(10), 350–352, 386.
  • Knowles, M. S. (1973). The adult learner: A neglected species. Houston: Gulf Publishing Company. Revised Edition 1990.
  • Knowles, M. S. (1975). Self-directed learning: A guide for learners and teachers. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall/Cambridge.
  • Knowles, M. S. (1980). The modern practice of adult education: From pedagogy to andragogy. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall/Cambridge.
  • Knowles, M. S., et al. (1984). Andragogy in action: Applying modern principles of adult education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
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