Polio vaccine facts for kids

Kids Encyclopedia Facts
child is vaccinated against Polio

Two polio vaccines are used throughout the world against poliomyelitis (or polio).

The first was developed by Jonas Salk and first tested in 1952. Announced to the world by Salk on April 12, 1955, it is an injection of inactivated (dead) poliovirus. An oral vaccine was developed by Albert Sabin using attenuated poliovirus. Human trials of Sabin's vaccine began in 1957 and it was licensed in 1962.

There is no long term carrier for poliovirus, and polioviruses have no non-primate reservoir in nature. The virus cannot survive in the open environment for a long time. Therefore, interruption of person to person transmission of the virus by vaccination is the key step in removing polio entirely. The two vaccines have eliminated polio from most countries in the world. Polio worldwide has dropped from about 350,000 cases in 1988 to 1,652 cases in 2007.

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Polio vaccine Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.