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Alberta Hunter
Alberta Hunter.jpg
Hunter in 1979
Background information
Also known as May Alix, Josephine Beatty
Born (1895-04-01)April 1, 1895
Memphis, Tennessee
Died October 17, 1984(1984-10-17) (aged 89)
Roosevelt Island, New York
Genres Jazz, blues
Occupation(s) Singer
Years active 1914–84
Labels Black Swan, Paramount, Gennett, OKeh, Victor, Columbia, Decca, Bluebird, Bluesville
Associated acts Bessie Smith, Ethel Waters, Billie Holiday

Alberta Hunter (April 1, 1895 – October 17, 1984) was an American jazz and blues singer and songwriter from the early 1920s to the late 1950s. After twenty years of working as a nurse, Hunter resumed her singing career in 1977.

Early life

Hunter was born in Memphis, Tennessee, to Laura Peterson, who worked as a maid in Memphis, and Charles Hunter, a Pullman porter. Hunter said she never knew her father. She attended Grant Elementary School, off Auction Street, which she called Auction School, in Memphis. She attended school until around age 15.

Hunter had a difficult childhood. Her father left when she was a child, and to support the family her mother worked as a servant in Memphis, although she married again in 1906. Hunter was not happy with her new family and left for Chicago, Illinois, around the age of 11, in the hopes of becoming a paid singer; she had heard that it paid 10 dollars an hour. Instead of finding a job as a singer she had to earn money by working at a boardinghouse that paid six dollars a week as well as room and board. Hunter's mother left Memphis and moved in with her soon afterwards.


Early years: 1910s–1940s

In Chicago, Hunter peeled potatoes by day and hounded club owners by night, determined to land a singing job. Her persistence paid off, and Hunter began a climb from some of the city's lowest dives to a headlining job at its most prestigious venue for black entertainers, the Dreamland ballroom. She had a five-year association with the Dreamland, beginning in 1917, and her salary rose to $35 a week.

She first toured Europe in 1917, performing in Paris and London. The Europeans treated her as an artist, showing her respect and even reverence, which made a great impression on her.

Her career as singer and songwriter flourished in the 1920s and 1930s, and she appeared in clubs and on stage in musicals in both New York and London. The songs she wrote include the critically acclaimed "Downhearted Blues" (1922).

She recorded several records with Perry Bradford from 1922 to 1927.

Hunter recorded prolifically during the 1920s, starting with sessions for Black Swan in 1921, Paramount in 1922–1924, Gennett in 1924, OKeh in 1925–1926, Victor in 1927 and Columbia in 1929. While still working for Paramount, she also recorded for Harmograph Records under the pseudonym May Alix.

Hunter wrote "Downhearted Blues" with Lovie Austin and recorded the track for Ink Williams at Paramount Records. She received only $368 in royalties. Williams had secretly sold the recording rights to Columbia Records in a deal in which all royalties were paid to him. The song became a big hit for Columbia, with Bessie Smith as the vocalist. This record sold almost 1 million copies. Hunter learned what Williams had done and stopped recording for him.

In 1928, Hunter played Queenie opposite Paul Robeson in the first London production of Show Boat at Drury Lane. She subsequently performed in nightclubs throughout Europe and appeared for the 1934 winter season with Jack Jackson's society orchestra at the Dorchester, in London. One of her recordings with Jackson is "Miss Otis Regrets".

While at the Dorchester, she made several HMV recordings with the orchestra and appeared in Radio Parade of 1935 (1934), the first British theatrical film to feature the short-lived Dufaycolor, but Hunter's segment was one of only two in color. She spent the late 1930s fulfilling engagements on both sides of the Atlantic and the early 1940s performing at home.

Hunter eventually moved to New York City. She performed with Bricktop and recorded with Louis Armstrong and Sidney Bechet. With a vocal duet chorus between Clarence Todd and herself, "Cake Walking Babies (From Home)," featuring the Bechet and Armstrong, was another one of Hunter's hits recorded in December 1924 during her time in New York City. She continued to perform on both sides of the Atlantic, and as the head of the U.S.O.'s first black show, until her mother's death.

In 1944, she took a U.S.O. troupe to Casablanca and continued entertaining troops in both theatres of war for the duration of World War II and into the early postwar period. In the 1950s, she led U.S.O. troupes in Korea, but her mother's death in 1957 led her to seek a radical career change.

Retirement: late 1950s–1970s

Hunter said that when her mother died in 1957, because they had been partners and were so close, the appeal of performing ended for her. She reduced her age, "invented" a high school diploma, and enrolled in nursing school, embarking on a career in health care, in which she worked for 20 years at Roosevelt Island's Goldwater Memorial Hospital.

The hospital forced Hunter to retire because it believed she was 70 years old. Hunter—who was actually 82 years old—decided to return to singing. She had already made a brief return by performing on two albums in the early 1960s, but now she had a regular engagement at a Greenwich Village club, becoming an attraction there until her death, in October 1984.

Comeback: 1970s–1980s

Hunter was still working at Goldwater Memorial Hospital in 1961 when she was persuaded to participate in two recording sessions. In 1971 she was videotaped for a segment of a Danish television program, and she taped an interview for the Smithsonian Institution.

In the summer of 1976, Hunter attended a party for her long-time friend Mabel Mercer, hosted by Bobby Short; music public relations agent Charles Bourgeois asked Hunter to sing and connected her with the owner of Cafe Society, Barney Josephson. Josephson offered Hunter a limited engagement at his Greenwich Village club, The Cookery. Her two-week appearance there was a huge success, turning into a six-year engagement and a revival of her career in music.

Impressed with the attention paid her by the press, John Hammond signed Hunter to Columbia Records. He had not previously shown interest in Hunter, but he had been a close associate of Barney Josephson decades earlier, when the latter ran the Café Society Uptown and Downtown clubs. Her Columbia albums, The Glory of Alberta Hunter, Amtrak Blues (on which she sang the jazz classic "Darktown Strutters' Ball"), and Look For the Silver Lining, did not sell as well as expected, but sales were nevertheless healthy. There were also numerous appearances on television programs, including To Tell the Truth (in which panelist Kitty Carlisle had to recuse herself, the two having known each other in Hunter's heyday). She also had a walk-on role in Remember My Name, a 1978 film by Alan Rudolph, for which producer Robert Altman commissioned her to write and to perform the soundtrack music.

Personal life

In 1919, Hunter married Willard Saxby Townsend, a former soldier who later became a labor leader for baggage handlers via the International Brotherhood of Red Caps, was short-lived. They separated within months, as Hunter did not want to quit her career—and officially divorced in 1923.

In August 1927, she sailed for France, accompanied by Lottie Tyler, the niece of well known comedian Bert Williams. Hunter and Tyler had met in Chicago a few years earlier. Their relationship lasted until Ms. Tyler's death, many years later.

Hunter is buried in the Ferncliff Cemetery and Mausoleum located in Hartsdale, Westchester County, New York (Elmwood section; plot 1411), the location of many celebrity burials.

Hunter's life was documented in Alberta Hunter: My Castle's Rockin' (1988 TV movie), a documentary written by Chris Albertson and narrated by the pianist Billy Taylor, and in Cookin' at the Cookery, a biographical musical by Marion J. Caffey, which has toured the United States in recent years with Ernestine Jackson as Hunter.

Hunter was inducted to the Blues Hall of Fame in 2011 and the Memphis Music Hall of Fame in 2015. Hunter's comeback album, Amtrak Blues, was honored by the Blues Hall of Fame in 2009.


Early work: 1921–46

  • Hunter, Alberta. Complete Recorded Works in Chronological Order. Volume 1: May 1921 to February 1923. Vienna, Austria: Document Records, 1996. DOCD-5422. .
  • Hunter, Alberta. Complete Recorded Works in Chronological Order. Volume 2: February 1923 to November 1924. Vienna, Austria: Document Records, 1996. DOCD-5423. .
  • Hunter, Alberta. Complete Recorded Works in Chronological Order. Volume 3: 6 November 1924 to 26 February 1927. Vienna, Austria: Document Records, 1996. DOCD-5424. .
  • Hunter, Alberta. Volume 5: The Alternate Takes. 1921–1925. Vienna, Austria: Document Records, 1997. DOCD-1006. .
  • Hunter, Alberta, and Jack Jackson. The Legendary Alberta Hunter. The London Sessions with Jack Jackson & His Orchestra. New York: DRG, 1981. Recorded at the Dorchester Hotel, September–November 1934. .

Collaborations: 1961

  • 1961: Chicago: The Living Legends. Alberta Hunter with Lovie Austin's Blues Serenaders (Riverside), recorded September 1, 1961, in Chicago.
  • 1961: Songs We Taught Your Mother: Alberta Hunter, Lucille Hegamin, Victoria Spivey (Bluesville/Original Blues Classics), recorded by Rudy Van Gelder on August 16, 1961, in Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey.

Comeback: 1978–83

  • 1978: Remember My Name, the original soundtrack recording of the Robert Altman film Remember My Name, (Columbia),
  • 1980: Amtrak Blues (Columbia),
  • 1981: Downhearted Blues: Live at the Cookery, a concert from the documentary Alberta Hunter: My Castle's Rockin, recorded in December 1981 at The Cookery, New York (Varèse Sarabande),
  • 1982: The Glory of Alberta Hunter (Columbia)
  • 1983: Look for the Silver Lining (Columbia)



Articles, chapters

  • Alberta Hunter papers, 1919-1986 at Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Manuscripts, Archives and Rare Books Division at the New York Public Library

See also

Kids robot.svg In Spanish: Alberta Hunter para niños

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