Alutor language facts for kids
Contents
By culture / time period
Name  Base  Sample  Approx. First Appearance  

Alutor Numerals  35,000 BCE  
Babylonian numerals  60  3,100 BCE  
Egyptian numerals  10 

3,000 BCE  
Chinese numerals, Japanese numerals, Korean numerals (SinoKorean), Vietnamese numerals (SinoVietnamese)  10 
零一二三四五六七八九十百千萬億 (Default, Traditional Chinese) 〇一二三四五六七八九十百千万亿 (Default, Simplified Chinese) 零壹貳參肆伍陸柒捌玖拾佰仟萬億 (Financial, T. Chinese) 零壹贰叁肆伍陆柒捌玖拾佰仟萬億 (Financial, S. Chinese) 
1,600 BCE  
Aegean numerals  10  𐄇 𐄈 𐄉 𐄊 𐄋 𐄌 𐄍 𐄎 𐄏 ( ) 𐄐 𐄑 𐄒 𐄓 𐄔 𐄕 𐄖 𐄗 𐄘 ( ) 𐄙 𐄚 𐄛 𐄜 𐄝 𐄞 𐄟 𐄠 𐄡 ( ) 𐄢 𐄣 𐄤 𐄥 𐄦 𐄧 𐄨 𐄩 𐄪 ( ) 𐄫 𐄬 𐄭 𐄮 𐄯 𐄰 𐄱 𐄲 𐄳 ( ) 
1,500 BCE  
Roman numerals  I V X L C D M  1,000 BCE  
Hebrew numerals  10  א ב ג ד ה ו ז ח ט י כ ל מ נ ס ע פ צ ק ר ש ת ך ם ן ף ץ 
800 BCE  
Indian numerals  10  Tamil ௦ ௧ ௨ ௩ ௪ ௫ ௬ ௭ ௮ ௯
Devanagari ० १ २ ३ ४ ५ ६ ७ ८ ९ Tibetan ༠ ༡ ༢ ༣ ༤ ༥ ༦ ༧ ༨ ༩ 
750 – 690 BCE  
Greek numerals  10  ō α β γ δ ε ϝ ζ η θ ι ο Αʹ Βʹ Γʹ Δʹ Εʹ Ϛʹ Ζʹ Ηʹ Θʹ 
<400 BCE  
Phoenician numerals  10  𐤙 𐤘 𐤗 𐤛𐤛𐤛 𐤛𐤛𐤚 𐤛𐤛𐤖 𐤛𐤛 𐤛𐤚 𐤛𐤖 𐤛 𐤚 𐤖  <250 BCE  
Chinese rod numerals  10  𝍠 𝍡 𝍢 𝍣 𝍤 𝍥 𝍦 𝍧 𝍨 𝍩  1st Century  
Ge'ez numerals  10  ፩, ፪, ፫, ፬, ፭, ፮, ፯, ፰, ፱ ፲, ፳, ፴, ፵, ፶, ፷, ፸, ፹, ፺, ፻ 
3rd – 4th Century, 15th Century (Modern Style)  
Armenian numerals  10  Ա Բ Գ Դ Ե Զ Է Ը Թ Ժ  Early 5th Century  
Khmer numerals  10  ០ ១ ២ ៣ ៤ ៥ ៦ ៧ ៨ ៩  Early 7th Century  
Thai numerals  10  ๐ ๑ ๒ ๓ ๔ ๕ ๖ ๗ ๘ ๙  7th Century  
Abjad numerals  10  غ ظ ض ذ خ ث ت ش ر ق ص ف ع س ن م ل ك ي ط ح ز و هـ د ج ب ا  <8th Century  
Eastern Arabic numerals  10  ٩ ٨ ٧ ٦ ٥ ٤ ٣ ٢ ١ ٠  8th Century  
Western Arabic numerals  10  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  9th Century  
Cyrillic numerals  10  А҃ В҃ Г҃ Д҃ Е҃ Ѕ҃ З҃ И҃ Ѳ҃ І҃ ...  10th Century  
Tangut numerals  10  Template:Tangut  1036  
Burmese numerals  10  ၀ ၁ ၂ ၃ ၄ ၅ ၆ ၇ ၈ ၉  11th Century  
Maya numerals  20  <15th Century  
Muisca numerals  20  <15th Century  
Aztec numerals  20  16th Century  
Sinhala numerals  10  ෦ ෧ ෨ ෩ ෪ ෫ ෬ ෭ ෮ ෯
𑇡 𑇢 𑇣 𑇤 𑇥 𑇦 𑇧 𑇨 𑇩 𑇪 𑇫 𑇬 𑇭 𑇮 𑇯 𑇰 𑇱 𑇲 𑇳 𑇴 
<18th Century  
Kaktovik Inupiaq numerals  20  1994 
By type of notation
Quick facts for kids Algerian Arabic 


Darja, دارجة  
Native to  Algeria  
Native speakers  42.5 million (2020)e18 3 million L2 speakers in Algeria (no date) 

Language family 
AfroAsiatic


Writing system  Arabic script  

Algerian Arabic (known as Darja in Algeria) is a dialect derived from the form of Arabic spoken in northern Algeria. It belongs to the Maghrebi Arabic language continuum and is partially mutually intelligible with Tunisian and Moroccan.
Like other varieties of Maghrebi Arabic, Algerian has a mostly Semitic vocabulary. It contains Berber and Latin (African Romance) influences and has numerous loanwords from French, Andalusian Arabic, Ottoman Turkish and Spanish.
Algerian Arabic is the native dialect of 75% to 80% of Algerians and is mastered by 85% to 100% of them. It is a spoken language used in daily communication and entertainment, while Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) is generally reserved for official use and education.
Standard positional numeral systems
The common names are derived somewhat arbitrarily from a mix of Latin and Greek, in some cases including roots from both languages within a single name. There have been some proposals for standardisation.
Base  Name  Usage 

2  Binary  Digital computing, imperial and customary volume (bushelkenningpeckgallonpottlequartpintcupgilljackfluid ouncetablespoon) 
3  Ternary  Cantor set (all points in [0,1] that can be represented in ternary with no 1s); counting Tasbih in Islam; handfootyard and teaspoontablespoonshot measurement systems; most economical integer base 
4  Quaternary  Data transmission, DNA bases and Hilbert curves; Chumashan languages, and Kharosthi numerals 
5  Quinary  Gumatj, Ateso, Nunggubuyu, Kuurn Kopan Noot, and Saraveca languages; common count grouping e.g. tally marks 
6  Senary  Diceware, Ndom, Kanum, and ProtoUralic language (suspected) 
7  Septenary  Weeks timekeeping, Western music letter notation 
8  Octal  Charles XII of Sweden, Unixlike permissions, Squawk codes, DEC PDP11, compact notation for binary numbers, Xiantian (I Ching, China) 
9  Nonary  Base9 encoding; compact notation for ternary 
10  Decimal / Denary  Most widely used by modern civilizations 
11  Undecimal  Jokingly proposed during the French Revolution to settle a dispute between those proposing a shift to duodecimal and those who were content with decimal; check digit in ISBN. A base11 number system was attributed to the Māori (New Zealand) in the 19th century and the Pangwa (Tanzania) in the 20th century. 
12  Duodecimal  Languages in the Nigerian Middle Belt Janji, GbiriNiragu, Piti, and the Nimbia dialect of Gwandara; Chepang language of Nepal, and the Mahl dialect of Maldivian; dozengrossgreat gross counting; 12hour clock and months timekeeping; years of Chinese zodiac; foot and inch; Roman fractions 
13  Tridecimal  Base13 encoding; Conway base 13 function 
14  Tetradecimal  Programming for the HP 9100A/B calculator and image processing applications; pound and stone 
15  Pentadecimal  Telephony routing over IP, and the Huli language 
16  Hexadecimal  Base16 encoding; compact notation for binary data; tonal system; ounce and pound 
17  Heptadecimal  Base17 encoding 
18  Octodecimal  Base18 encoding 
19  Enneadecimal  Base19 encoding 
20  Vigesimal  Basque, Celtic, Maya, Muisca, Inuit, Yoruba, Tlingit, and Dzongkha numerals; Santali, and Ainu languages 
21  Unvigesimal  Base21 encoding 
22  Duovigesimal  Base22 encoding 
23  Trivigesimal  Kalam language, Kobon language 
24  Tetravigesimal  24hour clock timekeeping; Kaugel language 
25  Pentavigesimal  Base25 encoding 
26  Hexavigesimal  Base26 encoding; sometimes used for encryption or ciphering, using all letters 
27  Heptavigesimal Septemvigesimal  Telefol and Oksapmin languages. Mapping the nonzero digits to the alphabet and zero to the space is occasionally used to provide checksums for alphabetic data such as personal names, to provide a concise encoding of alphabetic strings, or as the basis for a form of gematria. Compact notation for ternary. 
28  Octovigesimal  Base28 encoding; months timekeeping 
29  Enneavigesimal  Base29 
30  Trigesimal  The Natural Area Code, this is the smallest base such that all of 1/2 to 1/6 terminate, a number n is a regular number if and only if 1/n terminates in base 30 
31  Untrigesimal  Base31 
32  Duotrigesimal  Base32 encoding and the Ngiti language 
33  Tritrigesimal  Use of letters (except I, O, Q) with digits in vehicle registration plates of Hong Kong 
34  Tetratrigesimal  Using all numbers and all letters except I and O 
35  Pentatrigesimal  Using all numbers and all letters except O 
36  Hexatrigesimal  Base36 encoding; use of letters with digits 
37  Heptatrigesimal  Base37; using all numbers and all letters of the Spanish alphabet 
38  Octotrigesimal  Base38 encoding; use all duodecimal digits and all letters 
40  Quadragesimal  DEC RADIX 50/MOD40 encoding used to compactly represent file names and other symbols on Digital Equipment Corporation computers. The character set is a subset of ASCII consisting of space, upper case letters, the punctuation marks "$", ".", and "%", and the numerals. 
42  Duoquadragesimal  Base42 encoding 
45  Pentaquadragesimal  Base45 encoding 
48  Octoquadragesimal  Base48 encoding 
49  Enneaquadragesimal  Compact notation for septenary 
50  Quinquagesimal  Base50 encoding; SQUOZE encoding used to compactly represent file names and other symbols on some IBM computers. Encoding using all Gurmukhi characters plus the Gurmukhi digits. 
52  Duoquinquagesimal  Base52 encoding, a variant of Base62 without vowels or a variant of Base26 using all lower and upper case letters. 
54  Tetraquinquagesimal  Base54 encoding 
56  Hexaquinquagesimal  Base56 encoding, a variant of Base58 
57  Heptaquinquagesimal  Base57 encoding, a variant of Base62 excluding I, O, l, U, and u or I, 1, l, 0, and O 
58  Octoquinquagesimal  Base58 encoding, a variant of Base62 excluding 0 (zero), I (capital i), O (capital o) and l (lower case L). 
60  Sexagesimal  Babylonian numerals; NewBase60 encoding, similar to Base62, excluding I, O, and l, but including _(underscore); degreesminutesseconds and hoursminutesseconds measurement systems; Ekari and Sumerian languages 
62  Duosexagesimal  Base62 encoding, using 0–9, A–Z, and a–z 
64  Tetrasexagesimal  Base64 encoding; I Ching in China. This system is conveniently coded into ASCII by using the 26 letters of the Latin alphabet in both upper and lower case (52 total) plus 10 numerals (62 total) and then adding two special characters (for example, YouTube video codes use the hyphen and underscore characters,  and _ to total 64). 
72  Duoseptuagesimal  Base72 encoding 
80  Octogesimal  Base80 encoding 
81  Unoctogesimal  Base81 encoding, using as 81=3^{4} is related to ternary 
85  Pentoctogesimal  Ascii85 encoding. This is the minimum number of characters needed to encode a 32 bit number into 5 printable characters in a process similar to MIME64 encoding, since 85^{5} is only slightly bigger than 2^{32}. Such method is 6.7% more efficient than MIME64 which encodes a 24 bit number into 4 printable characters. 
90  Nonagesimal  Related to Goormaghtigh conjecture for the generalized repunit numbers. 
91  Unnonagesimal  Base91 encoding, using all ASCII except "" (0x2D), "\" (0x5C), and " (0x27); one variant uses "\" (0x5C) in place of """ (0x22). 
92  Duononagesimal  Base92 encoding, using all of ASCII except for "`" (0x60) and """ (0x22) due to confusability. 
93  Trinonagesimal  Base93 encoding, using all of ASCII printable characters except for "," (0x27) and "" (0x3D) as well as the Space character. "," is reserved for delimiter and "" is reserved for negation. 
94  Tetranonagesimal  Base94 encoding, using all of ASCII printable characters. 
95  Pentanonagesimal  Base95 encoding, a variant of Base94 with the addition of the Space character. 
96  Hexanonagesimal  Base96 encoding, using all of ASCII printable characters as well as the two extra duodecimal digits 
100  Centesimal  As 100=10^{2}, these are two decimal digits 
120  Centevigesimal  Base120 encoding 
121  Centeunvigesimal  Related to base 11 
125  Centepentavigesimal  Related to base 5 
128  Centeoctovigesimal  Using as 128=2^{7} 
144  Centetetraquadragesimal  Two duodecimal digits 
256  Duocentehexaquinquagesimal  Base256 encoding, as 256=2^{8} 
360  Trecentosexagesimal  Degrees for angle 
Nonstandard positional numeral systems
Bijective numeration
Base  Name  Usage 

1  Unary (Bijective base1)  Tally marks 
2  Bijective base2  
3  Bijective base3  
4  Bijective base4  
5  Bijective base5  
6  Bijective base6  
8  Bijective base8  
10  Bijective base10  
12  Bijective base12  
16  Bijective base16  
26  Bijective base26  Spreadsheet column numeration. Also used by John Nash as part of his obsession with numerology and the uncovering of "hidden" messages. 
Nonpositional notation
All known numeral systems developed before the Babylonian numerals are nonpositional, as are many developed later, such as the Roman numerals. The French Cistercian monks created their own numeral system.
History
Immediately after conquering Ryūkyū, Satsuma conducted a land survey in Okinawa in 1609 and in Yaeyama in 1611. By doing so, Satsuma decided the amount of tribute to be paid annually by Ryūkyū. Following that, Ryūkyū imposed a poll tax on Yaeyama in 1640. A fixed quota was allocated to each island and then was broken up into each community. Finally, quotas were set for the individual islanders, adjusted only by age and gender. Community leaders were notified of quotas in the government office on Ishigaki. They checked the calculation using warazan (barazan in Yaeyama), a strawbased method of calculation and recording numerals that was reminiscent of Incan Quipu. After that, the quota for each household was written on a wooden plate called itafuda or hansatsu (板札 ). That was where Kaidā glyphs were used. Although sōrōstyle Written Japanese had the status of administrative language, the remote islands had to rely on pictograms to notify illiterate peasants. According to a 19thcentury document cited by the Yaeyama rekishi (1954), an official named Ōhama Seiki designed "perfect ideographs" for itafuda in the early 19th century although it suggests the existence of earlier, "imperfect" ideographs. Sudō (1944) recorded an oral history on Yonaguni: 9 generations ago, an ancestor of the Kedagusuku lineage named Mase taught Kaidā glyphs and warazan to the public. Sudō dated the event to the second half of the 17th century.
According to Ikema (1959), Kaidā glyphs and warazan were evidently accurate enough to make corrections to official announcements. The poll tax was finally abolished in 1903. They were used until the introduction of the nationwide primary education system rapidly lowered the illiteracy rate during the Meiji period. They are currently used on Yonaguni and Taketomi for folk art, Tshirts, and other products, more for their artistic value than as a recordkeeping system.
Nonstandard positional numeral systems
Bijective numeration
Base  Name  Usage 

1  Unary (Bijective base1)  Tally marks 
2  Bijective base2  
3  Bijective base3  
4  Bijective base4  
5  Bijective base5  
6  Bijective base6  
8  Bijective base8  
10  Bijective base10  
12  Bijective base12  
16  Bijective base16  
26  Bijective base26  Spreadsheet column numeration. Also used by John Nash as part of his obsession with numerology and the uncovering of "hidden" messages. 
Negative bases
The common names of the negative base numeral systems are formed using the prefix nega, giving names such as:
Base  Name  Usage 

−2  Negabinary  
−3  Negaternary  
−4  Negaquaternary  
−5  Negaquinary  
−6  Negasenary  
−8  Negaoctal  
−10  Negadecimal  
−12  Negaduodecimal  
−16  Negahexadecimal 
By type of notation
The common names are derived somewhat arbitrarily from a mix of Latin and Greek, in some cases including roots from both languages within a single name. There have been some proposals for standardisation.
Base  Name  Usage 

2  Binary  Digital computing, imperial and customary volume (bushelkenningpeckgallonpottlequartpintcupgilljackfluid ouncetablespoon) 
3  Ternary  Cantor set (all points in [0,1] that can be represented in ternary with no 1s); counting Tasbih in Islam; handfootyard and teaspoontablespoonshot measurement systems; most economical integer base 
4  Quaternary  Data transmission, DNA bases and Hilbert curves; Chumashan languages, and Kharosthi numerals 
5  Quinary  Gumatj, Ateso, Nunggubuyu, Kuurn Kopan Noot, and Saraveca languages; common count grouping e.g. tally marks 
6  Senary  Diceware, Ndom, Kanum, and ProtoUralic language (suspected) 
7  Septenary  Weeks timekeeping, Western music letter notation 
8  Octal  Charles XII of Sweden, Unixlike permissions, Squawk codes, DEC PDP11, compact notation for binary numbers, Xiantian (I Ching, China) 
9  Nonary  Base9 encoding; compact notation for ternary 
10  Decimal / Denary  Most widely used by modern civilizations 
11  Undecimal  Jokingly proposed during the French Revolution to settle a dispute between those proposing a shift to duodecimal and those who were content with decimal; check digit in ISBN. A base11 number system was attributed to the Māori (New Zealand) in the 19th century and the Pangwa (Tanzania) in the 20th century. 
12  Duodecimal  Languages in the Nigerian Middle Belt Janji, GbiriNiragu, Piti, and the Nimbia dialect of Gwandara; Chepang language of Nepal, and the Mahl dialect of Maldivian; dozengrossgreat gross counting; 12hour clock and months timekeeping; years of Chinese zodiac; foot and inch; Roman fractions 
13  Tridecimal  Base13 encoding; Conway base 13 function 
14  Tetradecimal  Programming for the HP 9100A/B calculator and image processing applications; pound and stone 
15  Pentadecimal  Telephony routing over IP, and the Huli language 
16  Hexadecimal  Base16 encoding; compact notation for binary data; tonal system; ounce and pound 
17  Heptadecimal  Base17 encoding 
18  Octodecimal  Base18 encoding 
19  Enneadecimal  Base19 encoding 
20  Vigesimal  Basque, Celtic, Maya, Muisca, Inuit, Yoruba, Tlingit, and Dzongkha numerals; Santali, and Ainu languages 
21  Unvigesimal  Base21 encoding 
22  Duovigesimal  Base22 encoding 
23  Trivigesimal  Kalam language, Kobon language 
24  Tetravigesimal  24hour clock timekeeping; Kaugel language 
25  Pentavigesimal  Base25 encoding 
26  Hexavigesimal  Base26 encoding; sometimes used for encryption or ciphering, using all letters 
27  Heptavigesimal Septemvigesimal  Telefol and Oksapmin languages. Mapping the nonzero digits to the alphabet and zero to the space is occasionally used to provide checksums for alphabetic data such as personal names, to provide a concise encoding of alphabetic strings, or as the basis for a form of gematria. Compact notation for ternary. 
28  Octovigesimal  Base28 encoding; months timekeeping 
29  Enneavigesimal  Base29 
30  Trigesimal  The Natural Area Code, this is the smallest base such that all of 1/2 to 1/6 terminate, a number n is a regular number if and only if 1/n terminates in base 30 
31  Untrigesimal  Base31 
32  Duotrigesimal  Base32 encoding and the Ngiti language 
33  Tritrigesimal  Use of letters (except I, O, Q) with digits in vehicle registration plates of Hong Kong 
34  Tetratrigesimal  Using all numbers and all letters except I and O 
35  Pentatrigesimal  Using all numbers and all letters except O 
36  Hexatrigesimal  Base36 encoding; use of letters with digits 
37  Heptatrigesimal  Base37; using all numbers and all letters of the Spanish alphabet 
38  Octotrigesimal  Base38 encoding; use all duodecimal digits and all letters 
40  Quadragesimal  DEC RADIX 50/MOD40 encoding used to compactly represent file names and other symbols on Digital Equipment Corporation computers. The character set is a subset of ASCII consisting of space, upper case letters, the punctuation marks "$", ".", and "%", and the numerals. 
42  Duoquadragesimal  Base42 encoding 
45  Pentaquadragesimal  Base45 encoding 
48  Octoquadragesimal  Base48 encoding 
49  Enneaquadragesimal  Compact notation for septenary 
50  Quinquagesimal  Base50 encoding; SQUOZE encoding used to compactly represent file names and other symbols on some IBM computers. Encoding using all Gurmukhi characters plus the Gurmukhi digits. 
52  Duoquinquagesimal  Base52 encoding, a variant of Base62 without vowels or a variant of Base26 using all lower and upper case letters. 
54  Tetraquinquagesimal  Base54 encoding 
56  Hexaquinquagesimal  Base56 encoding, a variant of Base58 
57  Heptaquinquagesimal  Base57 encoding, a variant of Base62 excluding I, O, l, U, and u or I, 1, l, 0, and O 
58  Octoquinquagesimal  Base58 encoding, a variant of Base62 excluding 0 (zero), I (capital i), O (capital o) and l (lower case L). 
60  Sexagesimal  Babylonian numerals; NewBase60 encoding, similar to Base62, excluding I, O, and l, but including _(underscore); degreesminutesseconds and hoursminutesseconds measurement systems; Ekari and Sumerian languages 
62  Duosexagesimal  Base62 encoding, using 0–9, A–Z, and a–z 
64  Tetrasexagesimal  Base64 encoding; I Ching in China. This system is conveniently coded into ASCII by using the 26 letters of the Latin alphabet in both upper and lower case (52 total) plus 10 numerals (62 total) and then adding two special characters (for example, YouTube video codes use the hyphen and underscore characters,  and _ to total 64). 
72  Duoseptuagesimal  Base72 encoding 
80  Octogesimal  Base80 encoding 
81  Unoctogesimal  Base81 encoding, using as 81=3^{4} is related to ternary 
85  Pentoctogesimal  Ascii85 encoding. This is the minimum number of characters needed to encode a 32 bit number into 5 printable characters in a process similar to MIME64 encoding, since 85^{5} is only slightly bigger than 2^{32}. Such method is 6.7% more efficient than MIME64 which encodes a 24 bit number into 4 printable characters. 
90  Nonagesimal  Related to Goormaghtigh conjecture for the generalized repunit numbers. 
91  Unnonagesimal  Base91 encoding, using all ASCII except "" (0x2D), "\" (0x5C), and " (0x27); one variant uses "\" (0x5C) in place of """ (0x22). 
92  Duononagesimal  Base92 encoding, using all of ASCII except for "`" (0x60) and """ (0x22) due to confusability. 
93  Trinonagesimal  Base93 encoding, using all of ASCII printable characters except for "," (0x27) and "" (0x3D) as well as the Space character. "," is reserved for delimiter and "" is reserved for negation. 
94  Tetranonagesimal  Base94 encoding, using all of ASCII printable characters. 
95  Pentanonagesimal  Base95 encoding, a variant of Base94 with the addition of the Space character. 
96  Hexanonagesimal  Base96 encoding, using all of ASCII printable characters as well as the two extra duodecimal digits 
100  Centesimal  As 100=10^{2}, these are two decimal digits 
120  Centevigesimal  Base120 encoding 
121  Centeunvigesimal  Related to base 11 
125  Centepentavigesimal  Related to base 5 
128  Centeoctovigesimal  Using as 128=2^{7} 
144  Centetetraquadragesimal  Two duodecimal digits 
256  Duocentehexaquinquagesimal  Base256 encoding, as 256=2^{8} 
360  Trecentosexagesimal  Degrees for angle 
Nonstandard positional numeral systems
Bijective numeration
Base  Name  Usage 

1  Unary (Bijective base1)  Tally marks 
2  Bijective base2  
3  Bijective base3  
4  Bijective base4  
5  Bijective base5  
6  Bijective base6  
8  Bijective base8  
10  Bijective base10  
12  Bijective base12  
16  Bijective base16  
26  Bijective base26  Spreadsheet column numeration. Also used by John Nash as part of his obsession with numerology and the uncovering of "hidden" messages. 
Signeddigit representation
Base  Name  Usage 

2  Balanced binary (Nonadjacent form)  
3  Balanced ternary  Ternary computers 
4  Balanced quaternary  
5  Balanced quinary  
6  Balanced senary  
7  Balanced septenary  
8  Balanced octal  
9  Balanced nonary  
10  Balanced decimal  John Colson Augustin Cauchy 
11  Balanced undecimal  
12  Balanced duodecimal 
Negative bases
The common names of the negative base numeral systems are formed using the prefix nega, giving names such as:
Base  Name  Usage 

−2  Negabinary  
−3  Negaternary  
−4  Negaquaternary  
−5  Negaquinary  
−6  Negasenary  
−8  Negaoctal  
−10  Negadecimal  
−12  Negaduodecimal  
−16  Negahexadecimal 
Complex bases
Base  Name  Usage 

2i  Quaterimaginary base  related to base −4 and base 16 
Base  related to base −2 and base 4  
Base  related to base 2  
Base  related to base 8  
Base  related to base 2  
−1 ± i  Twindragon base  Twindragon fractal shape, related to base −4 and base 16 
1 ± i  NegaTwindragon base  related to base −4 and base 16 
Noninteger bases
Base  Name  Usage 

Base  a rational noninteger base  
Base  related to duodecimal  
Base  related to decimal  
Base  related to base 2  
Base  related to base 3  
Base  
Base  
Base  using in music scale  
Base  
Base  a negative rational noninteger base  
Base  a negative noninteger base, related to base 2  
Base  related to decimal  
Base  related to duodecimal  
φ  Golden ratio base  Early Beta encoder 
ρ  Plastic number base  
ψ  Supergolden ratio base  
Silver ratio base  
e  Base  Lowest radix economy 
π  Base  
Base 
nadic number
Base  Name  Usage 

2  Dyadic number  
3  Triadic number  
4  Tetradic number  the same as dyadic number 
5  Pentadic number  
6  Hexadic number  not a field 
7  Heptadic number  
8  Octadic number  the same as dyadic number 
9  Enneadic number  the same as triadic number 
10  Decadic number  not a field 
11  Hendecadic number  
12  Dodecadic number  not a field 
Mixed radix
 Factorial number system {1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, ...}
 Even double factorial number system {2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, ...}
 Odd double factorial number system {1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, ...}
 Primorial number system {2, 3, 5, 7, 11, 13, ...}
 {60, 60, 24, 7} in timekeeping
 {60, 60, 24, 30 (or 31 or 28 or 29), 12} in timekeeping
 (12, 20) traditional English monetary system (£sd)
 (20, 18, 13) Maya timekeeping
Other
 Quote notation
 Redundant binary representation
 Hereditary basen notation
 Asymmetric numeral systems optimized for nonuniform probability distribution of symbols
Nonpositional notation
All known numeral systems developed before the Babylonian numerals are nonpositional, as are many developed later, such as the Roman numerals. The French Cistercian monks created their own numeral system.
By type of notation
The common names are derived somewhat arbitrarily from a mix of Latin and Greek, in some cases including roots from both languages within a single name. There have been some proposals for standardisation.
Base  Name  Usage 

2  Binary  Digital computing, imperial and customary volume (bushelkenningpeckgallonpottlequartpintcupgilljackfluid ouncetablespoon) 
3  Ternary  Cantor set (all points in [0,1] that can be represented in ternary with no 1s); counting Tasbih in Islam; handfootyard and teaspoontablespoonshot measurement systems; most economical integer base 
4  Quaternary  Data transmission, DNA bases and Hilbert curves; Chumashan languages, and Kharosthi numerals 
5  Quinary  Gumatj, Ateso, Nunggubuyu, Kuurn Kopan Noot, and Saraveca languages; common count grouping e.g. tally marks 
6  Senary  Diceware, Ndom, Kanum, and ProtoUralic language (suspected) 
7  Septenary  Weeks timekeeping, Western music letter notation 
8  Octal  Charles XII of Sweden, Unixlike permissions, Squawk codes, DEC PDP11, compact notation for binary numbers, Xiantian (I Ching, China) 
9  Nonary  Base9 encoding; compact notation for ternary 
10  Decimal / Denary  Most widely used by modern civilizations 
11  Undecimal  Jokingly proposed during the French Revolution to settle a dispute between those proposing a shift to duodecimal and those who were content with decimal; check digit in ISBN. A base11 number system was attributed to the Māori (New Zealand) in the 19th century and the Pangwa (Tanzania) in the 20th century. 
12  Duodecimal  Languages in the Nigerian Middle Belt Janji, GbiriNiragu, Piti, and the Nimbia dialect of Gwandara; Chepang language of Nepal, and the Mahl dialect of Maldivian; dozengrossgreat gross counting; 12hour clock and months timekeeping; years of Chinese zodiac; foot and inch; Roman fractions 
13  Tridecimal  Base13 encoding; Conway base 13 function 
14  Tetradecimal  Programming for the HP 9100A/B calculator and image processing applications; pound and stone 
15  Pentadecimal  Telephony routing over IP, and the Huli language 
16  Hexadecimal  Base16 encoding; compact notation for binary data; tonal system; ounce and pound 
17  Heptadecimal  Base17 encoding 
18  Octodecimal  Base18 encoding 
19  Enneadecimal  Base19 encoding 
20  Vigesimal  Basque, Celtic, Maya, Muisca, Inuit, Yoruba, Tlingit, and Dzongkha numerals; Santali, and Ainu languages 
21  Unvigesimal  Base21 encoding 
22  Duovigesimal  Base22 encoding 
23  Trivigesimal  Kalam language, Kobon language 
24  Tetravigesimal  24hour clock timekeeping; Kaugel language 
25  Pentavigesimal  Base25 encoding 
26  Hexavigesimal  Base26 encoding; sometimes used for encryption or ciphering, using all letters 
27  Heptavigesimal Septemvigesimal  Telefol and Oksapmin languages. Mapping the nonzero digits to the alphabet and zero to the space is occasionally used to provide checksums for alphabetic data such as personal names, to provide a concise encoding of alphabetic strings, or as the basis for a form of gematria. Compact notation for ternary. 
28  Octovigesimal  Base28 encoding; months timekeeping 
29  Enneavigesimal  Base29 
30  Trigesimal  The Natural Area Code, this is the smallest base such that all of 1/2 to 1/6 terminate, a number n is a regular number if and only if 1/n terminates in base 30 
31  Untrigesimal  Base31 
32  Duotrigesimal  Base32 encoding and the Ngiti language 
33  Tritrigesimal  Use of letters (except I, O, Q) with digits in vehicle registration plates of Hong Kong 
34  Tetratrigesimal  Using all numbers and all letters except I and O 
35  Pentatrigesimal  Using all numbers and all letters except O 
36  Hexatrigesimal  Base36 encoding; use of letters with digits 
37  Heptatrigesimal  Base37; using all numbers and all letters of the Spanish alphabet 
38  Octotrigesimal  Base38 encoding; use all duodecimal digits and all letters 
40  Quadragesimal  DEC RADIX 50/MOD40 encoding used to compactly represent file names and other symbols on Digital Equipment Corporation computers. The character set is a subset of ASCII consisting of space, upper case letters, the punctuation marks "$", ".", and "%", and the numerals. 
42  Duoquadragesimal  Base42 encoding 
45  Pentaquadragesimal  Base45 encoding 
48  Octoquadragesimal  Base48 encoding 
49  Enneaquadragesimal  Compact notation for septenary 
50  Quinquagesimal  Base50 encoding; SQUOZE encoding used to compactly represent file names and other symbols on some IBM computers. Encoding using all Gurmukhi characters plus the Gurmukhi digits. 
52  Duoquinquagesimal  Base52 encoding, a variant of Base62 without vowels or a variant of Base26 using all lower and upper case letters. 
54  Tetraquinquagesimal  Base54 encoding 
56  Hexaquinquagesimal  Base56 encoding, a variant of Base58 
57  Heptaquinquagesimal  Base57 encoding, a variant of Base62 excluding I, O, l, U, and u or I, 1, l, 0, and O 
58  Octoquinquagesimal  Base58 encoding, a variant of Base62 excluding 0 (zero), I (capital i), O (capital o) and l (lower case L). 
60  Sexagesimal  Babylonian numerals; NewBase60 encoding, similar to Base62, excluding I, O, and l, but including _(underscore); degreesminutesseconds and hoursminutesseconds measurement systems; Ekari and Sumerian languages 
62  Duosexagesimal  Base62 encoding, using 0–9, A–Z, and a–z 
64  Tetrasexagesimal  Base64 encoding; I Ching in China. This system is conveniently coded into ASCII by using the 26 letters of the Latin alphabet in both upper and lower case (52 total) plus 10 numerals (62 total) and then adding two special characters (for example, YouTube video codes use the hyphen and underscore characters,  and _ to total 64). 
72  Duoseptuagesimal  Base72 encoding 
80  Octogesimal  Base80 encoding 
81  Unoctogesimal  Base81 encoding, using as 81=3^{4} is related to ternary 
85  Pentoctogesimal  Ascii85 encoding. This is the minimum number of characters needed to encode a 32 bit number into 5 printable characters in a process similar to MIME64 encoding, since 85^{5} is only slightly bigger than 2^{32}. Such method is 6.7% more efficient than MIME64 which encodes a 24 bit number into 4 printable characters. 
90  Nonagesimal  Related to Goormaghtigh conjecture for the generalized repunit numbers. 
91  Unnonagesimal  Base91 encoding, using all ASCII except "" (0x2D), "\" (0x5C), and " (0x27); one variant uses "\" (0x5C) in place of """ (0x22). 
92  Duononagesimal  Base92 encoding, using all of ASCII except for "`" (0x60) and """ (0x22) due to confusability. 
93  Trinonagesimal  Base93 encoding, using all of ASCII printable characters except for "," (0x27) and "" (0x3D) as well as the Space character. "," is reserved for delimiter and "" is reserved for negation. 
94  Tetranonagesimal  Base94 encoding, using all of ASCII printable characters. 
95  Pentanonagesimal  Base95 encoding, a variant of Base94 with the addition of the Space character. 
96  Hexanonagesimal  Base96 encoding, using all of ASCII printable characters as well as the two extra duodecimal digits 
100  Centesimal  As 100=10^{2}, these are two decimal digits 
120  Centevigesimal  Base120 encoding 
121  Centeunvigesimal  Related to base 11 
125  Centepentavigesimal  Related to base 5 
128  Centeoctovigesimal  Using as 128=2^{7} 
144  Centetetraquadragesimal  Two duodecimal digits 
256  Duocentehexaquinquagesimal  Base256 encoding, as 256=2^{8} 
360  Trecentosexagesimal  Degrees for angle 
Nonstandard positional numeral systems
Bijective numeration
Base  Name  Usage 

1  Unary (Bijective base1)  Tally marks 
2  Bijective base2  
3  Bijective base3  
4  Bijective base4  
5  Bijective base5  
6  Bijective base6  
8  Bijective base8  
10  Bijective base10  
12  Bijective base12  
16  Bijective base16 
Other
 Quote notation
 Redundant binary representation
 Hereditary basen notation
 Asymmetric numeral systems optimized for nonuniform probability distribution of symbols
Nonpositional notation
All known numeral systems developed before the Babylonian numerals are nonpositional, as are many developed later, such as the Roman numerals. The French Cistercian monks created their own numeral system.
Other
 Quote notation
 Redundant binary representation
 Hereditary basen notation
 Asymmetric numeral systems optimized for nonuniform probability distribution of symbols
Other
 Quote notation
 Redundant binary representation
 Hereditary basen notation
 Asymmetric numeral systems optimized for nonuniform probability distribution of symbols
Other
 Quote notation
 Redundant binary representation
 Hereditary basen notation
 Asymmetric numeral systems optimized for nonuniform probability distribution of symbols
Other
 Quote notation
 Redundant binary representation
 Hereditary basen notation
 Asymmetric numeral systems optimized for nonuniform probability distribution of symbols
Letters
Adlam has both major and minor cases. See Omniglot in the external links for the pronunciation of the basic letters
Capital  Minuscule  Latin  Letter Name  IPA 

𞤀  𞤢  a  alif  a 
𞤁  𞤣  d  dâli  d 
𞤂  𞤤  l  lam  l 
𞤃  𞤥  m  mim  m 
𞤄  𞤦  b  ba  b 
𞤅  𞤧  s  singniyhé  s 
𞤆  𞤨  p  pè  p 
𞤇  𞤩  ɓ (bh)  bhè  ɓ 
𞤈  𞤪  r  ra  r/ɾ 
𞤉  𞤫  e  è  e 
𞤊  𞤬  f  fa  f 
𞤋  𞤭  i  i  i 
𞤌  𞤮  o  ö  o 
𞤍  𞤯  ɗ (dh)  dha  ɗ 
𞤎  𞤰  ƴ (yh)  yhè  ʔʲ 
𞤏  𞤱  w  wâwou  w 
𞤐  𞤲  n, any syllablefinal nasal  noûn  n 
𞤑  𞤳  k  kaf  k 
𞤒  𞤴  y  ya  j 
𞤓  𞤵  u  ou  u 
𞤔  𞤶  j  djim  dʒ 
𞤕  𞤷  c  tchi  tʃ 
𞤖  𞤸  h  ha  h 
𞤗  𞤹  ɠ (q)  ghaf  q 
𞤘  𞤺  g  ga  ɡ 
𞤙  𞤻  ñ (ny)  gna  ɲ 
𞤚  𞤼  t  tou  t 
𞤛  𞤽  ŋ (nh)  nha  ŋ 
Supplemental: for other languages or for loanwords  
𞤜  𞤾  v  va  v 
𞤝  𞤿  x (kh)  kha  x 
𞤞  𞥀  ɡb  gbe  ɡ͡b 
𞤟  𞥁  z  zal  z 
𞤠  𞥂  kp  kpo  k͡p 
𞤡  𞥃  sh  sha  ʃ 
The letters are found either joined akin to Arabic or separately  the joined form is commonly used in a cursive manner, however separate or block forms are also used as primarily for educational content.
Digits
Unlike in Arabic script, Adlam digits go in the same direction (right to left) as letters.
Adlam  HinduArabic 

𞥐  0 
𞥑  1 
𞥒  2 
𞥓  3 
𞥔  4 
𞥕  5 
𞥖  6 
𞥗  7 
𞥘  8 
𞥙  9 