Australian Convict Sites facts for kids

Kids Encyclopedia Facts
Australian Convict SitesĀ *
PortArthurPenitentiary.jpg
View of Port Arthur, Tasmania one of the 11 penal sites constituting the Australian Convict Sites
Country Australia
Type Cultural
Criteria iv, vi
Reference 1306
RegionĀ ** Asia-Pacific
Inscription history
Inscription 2010 (34th Session)

"Australian Convict Sites" is a World Heritage Site which includes the remains of 11 places used in the transportation of convicts to Australia. This was a plan by the British government to move thousands of prisoners from England to Australia. It started with the sending of the First Fleet to Sydney in 1788 and continued for about eighty years. The Australian Convict Sites include places in Sydney, Tasmania, Norfolk Island, and Fremantle. These are representing:

" .. the best surviving examples of large-scale convict transportation and the colonial expansion of European powers through the presence and labour of convicts."

All the sites were all individually included on the Australian National Heritage List before being put on the World Heritage list.

Penal Sites Included

The 11 penal sites making up the Australian Convict Sites World Heritage listed property are

  • Cockatoo Island Convict Site (New South Wales)
  • Great North Road (New South Wales)
  • Hyde Park Barracks (New South Wales)
  • Old Government House (New South Wales)
  • Kingston and Arthurs Vale Historic Area (Norfolk Island)
  • Brickendon and Woolmers Estates (Tasmania)
  • Cascades Female Factory (Tasmania)
  • Coal Mines Historic Site (Tasmania)
  • Darlington Probation Station (Tasmania)
  • Port Arthur (Tasmania)
  • Fremantle Prison (Western Australia)

Criteria for Listing

There are over 3000 convict sites remaining in Australia. The Australian Convict Sites were selected as the best examples of the world's convict era. This met World Heritage Selection Criteria IV & VI:

Convict labourers in Australia in the early 20th century
A convict ploughing team breaking up new ground - Port Arthur

Criterion IV (i.e. a collection of buildings/architecture etc. showing an important stage in human history):

"an exceptional example of the forced migration of convicts - an important stage of human history"

Criterion VI (i.e. directly associated with events etc. of importance to the whole world):

"an extraordinary example of global ideas and developments associated with the punishment and reform of the criminal elements of humanity during the Age of Enlightenment and the modern era

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