In electronics, doping is the process of adding certain chemical elements to a semiconductor in order to change its electrical properties. These elements are tiny impurities. This is done to create diodes that make electricity go in one direction, or to make transistors and semiconductor switches.
When an element called boron is added to silicon, the boron "dopant" is called an "acceptor" because it likes accepting electrons. When a chemical called phosphorous is added to silicon, the phosphorous is called a "donor" because it does not like electrons.
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Band diagram of PN junction operation in forward bias mode showing reducing depletion width. Both p and n junctions are doped at a 1×1015/cm3 doping level, leading to built-in potential of ~0.59 V. Reducing depletion width can be inferred from the shrinking charge profile, as fewer dopants are exposed with increasing forward bias.
Doping (semiconductor) Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.