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Floriano Peixoto facts for kids

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This is a Portuguese name; the first family name is Vieira and the second is Peixoto.
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Floriano Peixoto
Floriano Peixoto (1891) (Cropped).jpg
Marshal Floriano in 1891
2nd President of Brazil
In office
23 November 1891 – 14 November 1894
Vice President Manuel Vitorino
Preceded by Deodoro da Fonseca
Succeeded by Prudente de Morais
1st Vice President of Brazil
In office
26 February 1891 – 23 November 1891
President Deodoro da Fonseca
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Manuel Vitorino
Minister of War
In office
19 April 1890 – 22 January 1891
President Deodoro da Fonseca
Preceded by Eduardo Wandenkolk
Succeeded by Falcão da Frota
President of the Mato Grosso Province
In office
13 September 1884 – 5 October 1885
Monarch Pedro II
Preceded by Baron of Batovi
Succeeded by Ramos Ferreira
Personal details
Born (1839-04-30)30 April 1839
Maceió, Alagoas, Empire of Brazil
Died 29 July 1895(1895-07-29) (aged 56)
Barra Mansa, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Nationality Brazilian
Political party Independent
Spouse(s)
Josina Peixoto (m. 1872)
Signature
Military service
Nickname(s) The Iron Marshal
Allegiance Empire of Brazil Empire of Brazil
Brazil Brazil
Branch/service Coat of arms of the Brazilian Army.svg Brazilian Army
Years of service 1861–1889
Rank Field Marshal
Battles/wars Paraguayan War

Floriano Vieira Peixoto ( 30 April 1839 – 29 July 1895), born in Ipioca (today a district of the city of Maceió in the State of Alagoas), nicknamed the "Iron Marshal", was a Brazilian soldier and politician, a veteran of the Paraguayan War, and the second President of Brazil. He is the first Vice President of Brazil to have succeeded a former President mid-term.

Election

Monumento ao Marechal Floriano Peixoto - Alto
Monument to Marshal Floriano Peixoto, by Eduardo de Sá, in Downtown Rio de Janeiro

Peixoto was an army marshal when elected vice-president in February 1891. In November 1891, he rose to the presidency after the resignation of Marshal Deodoro da Fonseca, the first president of Brazil. Peixoto came to the presidency in a difficult period of the new Brazilian Republic, which was in the midst of a general political and economic crisis made worse by the effects of the bursting of the Encilhamento economic bubble. As Vice President, he had also served as the President of the Senate.

Presidency

His government was marked by several revolutions. Ruling in an authoritarian fashion, Peixoto defeated a naval officers' rebellion against him in 1893–1894 and a seditious military movement in the States of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina during the same years. His government was marked by an increased centralization of power and nationalism, with the florianista cult of personality being the first phenomenon of a favorable political expression towards a republican politician in Brazil.

Legacy

He is often referred to as "the Consolidator of the Republic" or "The Iron Marshal." He left the presidency on 15 November 1894. In spite of his unpopularity, he was responsible for the consolidation of the new republican government.

Desterro, the capital of the state of Santa Catarina, was renamed Florianópolis after its defeat by loyalist troops at the end of the Federalist Riograndense Revolution.

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