Formic acid facts for kids
|Other names||Carbonous acid; Formylic acid; Hydrogen carboxylic acid; Hydroxy(oxo)methane; Metacarbonoic acid; Oxocarbinic acid; Oxomethanol|
|Molar mass||46.01 g mol-1|
|Appearance||Colorless fuming liquid|
8.4 °C, 282 K, 47 °F
100.8 °C, 374 K, 213 °F
|Solubility in water||Miscible|
|Solubility||Miscible with ether, acetone, ethyl acetate, glycerol, methanol, ethanol
Partially soluble in benzene, toluene, xylenes
|Vapor pressure||35 mmHg (20 °C)|
|Refractive index (nD)||1.3714 (20 °C)|
|Viscosity||1.57 cP at 268 °C|
|Dipole moment||1.41 D (gas)|
|Std enthalpy of
|Std enthalpy of
|131.8 J/mol K|
|Main hazards||Corrosive; irritant;
18%–57% (90% solution)
exposure limit (PEL)
|TWA 5 ppm (9 mg/m3)|
|Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa)|
Formic acid, or methanoic acid, is the simplist carboxylic acid and has the chemical formula HCO2H. Many animals use for defence. The word "formic" comes from the Latin word for ant, formica, referring to its early isolation by the distillation of ant bodies, and the trivial name in some languages means "ant-acid", such as Dutch mierenzuur, Danish myresyre, Faroese meyrusýra, Français acide formique and German Ameisensäure. Esters, salts, and the anions derived from formic acid are called formates.
In nature, it is found in most ants. The wood ants from the genus Formica can spray formic acid on their preys or to defend the nest. It is also known from the trichomes of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica). Formic acid is a naturally occurring component of the atmosphere due primarily to forest emissions .
Formic acid Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.