Karl Landsteiner facts for kids

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Karl Landsteiner
Landsteiner in Stockholm in 1930
Born (1868-06-14)14 June 1868
Baden bei Wien, Austria-Hungary
Died 26 June 1943(1943-06-26) (aged 75)
New York City, New York, U.S.
Citizenship Austria, Netherlands, U.S.
Fields Medicine, virology
Institutions University of Vienna
Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research
Alma mater University of Vienna
Known for Development of blood group system, discovery of Rh factor, discovery of poliovirus
Notable awards

Karl Landsteiner, (14 June 1868 – 26 June 1943) was an Austrian biologist, physician, and immunologist. He distinguished the main blood groups in 1900, having developed the modern system of classification of blood group in 1937, thus enabling physicians to transfuse blood without endangering the patient's life.

Based on his findings, the first successful blood transfusion was performed by Reuben Ottenberg at Mount Sinai Hospital in New York in 1907. With Constantin Levaditi and Erwin Popper, he discovered the polio virus in 1909.

1000 Schilling banknote Karl Landsteiner front back
Austrian 1000-Schilling with Karl Landsteiner 1997

In today's blood transfusions only concentrates of red blood cells without serum are transmitted, which is of great importance in surgical practice. In 1930 Landsteiner was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in recognition of these achievements. For his pioneering work, he is recognized as the father of transfusion medicine. He received the Aronson Prize in 1926. He was posthumously awarded the Lasker Award in 1946.

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