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Morelia spilota facts for kids

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Carpet python
Australian-Carpet-Python.jpg
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Genus:
Morelia (snake)
Species:
spilota

Morelia spilota, commonly referred to as the carpet python or diamond python, is a large snake of the family Pythonidae found in Australia, New Guinea (Indonesia and Papua New Guinea), Bismarck Archipelago, and the northern Solomon Islands. Many subspecies are described: ITIS lists six, the Reptile Database six, and the IUCN eight.

Description

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M. s. spilota

Morelia spilota is a large species of python in the genus, reaching between 2 and 4 m (6.6 and 13.1 ft) in length and weighing up to 15 kg (33 lb). M. s. mcdowelli is the largest subspecies, regularly attaining lengths of 2.7–3 m (8.9–9.8 ft). M. s. variegata is the smallest subspecies, typically 120–180 cm (3.9–5.9 ft) in length. The average adult length is roughly 2 m (6.6 ft). However, one 3-year-old captive male M. s. mcdowelli, measured in Ireland, was found to exceed 396 cm (12.99 ft). Males are typically smaller than females; in some regions, females are up to four times heavier. The head is triangular with a conspicuous row of thermoreceptive labial pits.

The colouring of M. spilota is highly variable, ranging from olive to black with white or cream and gold markings. The patterning may be roughly diamond-shaped or have intricate markings made up of light and dark bands on a background of gray or a version of brown.

Reproduction

The species is oviparous, with females laying 10–50 eggs at a time. Afterward, females coil around the eggs to protect them and keep them warm through using muscular contractions to generate heat. This type of maternal care, which is typical for pythons, ceases once the hatchlings have emerged.

Behaviour

Differences in activity are noted throughout various subspecies; as a whole, the species is generally active during both daytime and nighttime, although the subspecies M. s. variegata are noted to be primarily nocturnal. Carpet pythons favor arboreal living conditions, although they commonly use open spaces to bask.

Diet

Carpet pythons kill prey by constriction. Their diet consists mainly of small mammals, birds, and lizards. Incidents of carpet pythons devouring domestic cats and small dogs have been reported.

Distribution and habitat

The species is found throughout mainland Australia, with the exception of the arid centre and the western regions. It is widely distributed throughout the forest regions of Southwest Australia. It is also found in Indonesia (southern Western New Guinea in Merauke Regency), Papua New Guinea (southern Western Province, the Port Moresby area of Central Province), and on Yule Island. The type locality given is "Nouvelle-Hollande" [Australia].

It occurs in a wide variety of habitats, from the rainforests of northeastern Queensland (M. s. cheynei) through the River Red Gum/Riverbox woodlands of the Murray and Darling Rivers (M. s. metcalfei), to the arid, treeless islands of the Nuyts Archipelago off the South Australian west coast (M. s. imbricata). It is often found near human habitation, where it performs a useful service by eating rats and other vermin. M. spilota is known to occur in areas that receive snowfall. It is a semiarboreal tree snake; it does not completely rely on trees, however, and is capable of moving around elsewhere. It is also found in temperate grasslands with hot and dry weather.

Conservation

M. spilota is not threatened as a species. The nominate subspecies, M. s. spilota, is listed as threatened with extinction in Victoria. The subspecies M. s. imbricata is regarded as near threatened in Western Australia, due to loss of habitat.

Captivity

This species is a popular pet among snake enthusiasts. Some forms can be more irascible than others, such as M. s. mcdowelli and M. s. variegata. Forms that tend to be more even tempered include M. s. spilota and M. s. metcalfei. Although they can grow to a reasonable size (2.0 to 3.5 m) and can be nippy as hatchlings, most grow into docile adults. However, care must be taken when feeding, as these snakes have a strong "feeding response" behaviour that can be mistaken for aggression. Captive specimens are normally fed live or frozen (defrosted to room temperature) rats. They may have a lifespan of 15 to 20 years.

The care requirements can be generalized for all subspecies. The subspecies M. s. spilota, the cold-weather diamond python, has some separate requirements and habits.

Subspecies

The geographic distribution and common names can be summarised as the following, although M. s. imbricata is missing:

Subspecies Taxon author Common name Geographic range
M. s. cheynei
Morelia spilota cheynei
Jungle carpet python - in shed.
Wells & Wellington, 1984 Jungle carpet python Australia in northeastern Queensland
M. s. mcdowelli
Australian-Carpet-Python
Australian-Carpet-Python
Wells & Wellington, 1984 Coastal carpet python Australia in eastern Queensland and northeastern New South Wales
M. s. metcalfei
Murray darling carpet python handling
Murray darling carpet python handling
Wells & Wellington, 1984 Inland carpet python Australia in the Murray-Darling Basin of Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia
M. s. spilota
Carpet Python in Lamington National Park, Queensland, Australia
Diamond python in Lamington National Park, Queensland, Australia
(Lacépède, 1804) Diamond python Australia in eastern New South Wales and the extreme east of Victoria
M. s. variegata J.E.Gray, 1842 Darwin carpet python
Irian Jaya carpet python
Papuan carpet python
Rubber python
New Guinea (Western New Guinea and Papua New Guinea) and Australia in northwestern Western Australia and in the northern portion of the Northern Territory (specimens from New Guinea are referred to by Hoser (2000) as M. harrisoni, but this is not officially recognized as a separate species or subspecies)

Hybrids

  • Morelia spilota X viridis

Naming and taxonomy

The first description of M. spilota was by Lacépède (1804), who placed it in the genus Coluber as Coluber spilotus. The species has since been described by various authors as containing a number of subspecies and hybrids, these have also been known by various informal names. The attempted arrangement of taxa in this, and other, Australasian Pythonidae has produced numerous synonyms. The discreet and roaming habits of this species have produced a low number of recorded specimens, giving inadequate sample numbers to support descriptions of a taxon's morphology. This is the case with proposed names which are sometimes cited, such as the Papuan Morelia spilota harrisoni (Hoser), despite being unaccepted or invalid. Common names are regional variants of carpet and diamond python or snake.

The following is an incomplete list of synonyms:

  • [Coluber] Arges - Linnaeus, 1758
  • [Coluber] Argus - Linnaeus, 1766
  • Coluber spilotus - Lacépède, 1804
  • [Python] punctatus - Merrem, 1820
  • [Coluber (Natrix)] Argus - Merrem, 1820
  • [Vipera (Echidna)] Spilotes - Merrem, 1820
  • Python Peronii - Wagler, 1828
  • Python spilotes - Gray In G. Grey, 1841
  • Morelia punctata - Gray, 1842
  • Morelia argus - A.M.C. Duméril & Bibron, 1844
  • Morelia spilotes - Gray, 1849
  • M[orelia]. argus var. fasciolata - Jan In Jan & Sordelli, 1864
  • Python spilotes - Boulenger, 1893
  • [Python spilotes spilotes] - Werner, 1909
  • Python spilotes macrospila - Werner, 1909
  • Morelia argus - Loveridge, 1934
  • Morelia argus - Stull, 1935
  • Morelia spilotes spilotes - Worrell, 1961
  • Morelia argus argus - Stimson, 1969
  • Python spilotes - McDowell, 1975
  • [Python spilotus spilotus] - L.A. Smith, 1981
  • Morelia spilota - Cogger, Cameron & Cogger, 1983
  • Morelia spilota - Underwood & Stimson, 1990
  • Morelia spilota spilota - Barker & Barker, 1994
  • Lacépède, B.G. 1804. Mémoire sur plusieurs animaux de la Nouvelle-Hollande dont la description n'a pas encore été publiée. Annales du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris 4: 184-211. (Coluber spilotus, p. 209.)
  • Mattison, C. 1999. Snake. DK Publishing. .
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