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National Democratic Alliance
Abbreviation NDA
Chairperson Amit Shah
(Home Minister)
Lok Sabha leader Narendra Modi
(Prime Minister)
Rajya Sabha leader Thawar Chand Gehlot
(Minister of Social Justice and Empowerment)
Founder L. K. Advani and Atal Bihari Vajpayee
(Bharatiya Janata Party)
Founded 1998
Political position Centre-right to right-wing
ECI Status National Alliance
Seats in Lok Sabha
333 / 543
Seats in Rajya Sabha
118 / 245
Seats in State Legislative Assemblies See § Strength in legislative assemblies

The National Democratic Alliance (NDA) is an Indian political alliance. It made up of center-right and right-wing political parties and led by the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). It was founded in 1998. It currently controls the Indian union government as well as the government of 18 Indian states.

Its first chairman was Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee. L. K. Advani, the former Deputy Prime Minister, took over as chairman in 2004 and served until 2014. Afetr that, Amit Shah has been the chairman since 2014. The coalition ruled from 1998 to 2004. The alliance returned to power in the 2014 general elections with a combined vote share of 38.5%. Its leader, Narendra Modi, was sworn in as Prime Minister of India on 26 May 2014. In the 2019 general election, the alliance further increased its tally to 353 seats with combined vote share of 45.43%.


The Prime Minister Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee delivering his speech at the 12th SAARC Summit in Islamabad, Pakistan on January 4, 2004 (1)
First Prime Minister from NDA, Atal Bihari Vajpayee
PM Modi 2015
Prime Minister Narendra Modi

The NDA was formed in May 1998 as a coalition to contest the general elections. The main aim of the NDA was to form a anti-Congress coalition. It was led by the BJP, and included several regional parties, including the Samta Party and the AIADMK, as well as Shiv Sena, the only member which shared the Hindutva ideology of the BJP. After the election, it was able to muster a slim majority with outside support from the Telugu Desam Party, allowing Atal Bihari Vajpayee to return as prime minister.

The government collapsed within a year because the AIADMK withdrew its support. After the entry of a few more regional parties, the NDA proceeded to win the 1999 elections with a larger majority. Vajpayee became Prime Minister for a third time, and this time served a full five-year term.

The NDA called elections in early 2004, six months ahead of schedule. Its campaign was based around the slogan of "India Shining" which attempted to depict the NDA government. It responsible for a rapid economic transformation of the country. However, the NDA suffered a defeat. They won with only a 186 seats in the Lok Sabha, compared to the 222 of the United Progressive Alliance led by the Congress, with Manmohan Singh. Singh has succeeded Vajpayee as prime minister. Commentators have argued that the NDA's defeat was due to a failure to reach out to the rural masses.


The National Democratic Alliance does not have a formal governing structure such as an executive board or politburo. It has been up to the leaders of the individual parties to make decisions on issues such as sharing of seats in elections, allocation of ministries and the issues that are raised in Parliament. Given the varied ideologies among the parties, there have been many cases of disagreement and split voting among the allies.

Owing to ill health, George Fernandes, who was the NDA convener until 2008, was discharged of his responsibility. He replaced by Sharad Yadav, the then national president of the JD(U) party. On 16 June 2013, the JD(U) left the coalition and Sharad Yadav resigned from the role of the NDA convener. Then the CM of Andhra Pradesh Chandrababu Naidu was made the NDA convener.

On 27 July 2017 JD(U) with the help of BJP formed the government in Bihar. Later, on 19 August 2017 JD(U) formally rejoined the NDA after 4 years.

Strength in parliament

Members of the National Democratic Alliance
Party MPs in Lok Sabha MPs in Rajya Sabha Party Status
1 Bharatiya Janata Party 302 93 National Party
2 All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam 1 9 Tamil Nadu
3 Janata Dal (United) 16 5 Bihar
4 Republican Party of India (A) - 1 Maharashtra
5 Lok Janshakti Party 6 - Bihar
6 Asom Gana Parishad - 1 Assam
7 Apna Dal (Sonelal) 2 - Uttar Pradesh
8 National People's Party 1 1 Meghalaya
9 Pattali Makkal Katchi - 1 Tamil Nadu
10 Tamil Maanila Congress - 1 Tamil Nadu
11 All Jharkhand Students Union 1 - Jharkhand
12 Nationalist Democratic Progressive Party 1 - Nagaland
13 Mizo National Front 1 1 Mizoram
14 Sikkim Krantikari Morcha 1 - Sikkim
15 Independent 1 1 None
16 Nominated - 4 None
Total 333 118 India

Current governments

State- and union territory-level parties

     BJP (12)      Coalition with BJP (6)      INC (4)      Coalition with INC (2)      Other Parties (AAP, AITC, BJD, TRS, YSRCP, CPI(M))      President's Rule (1)      Without Legislature (5) As of March 2020, the BJP holds a majority of Legislative Assembly in 12 states - Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Goa, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand. In Haryana, BJP shares power as the senior partner (Chief Minister of BJP) with Jannayak Janta Party.

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