Typha latifolia facts for kids
Quick facts for kidsTypha latifolia
|Mature male flower spike of Typha latifolia;
female flower spike beneath it is
still green (immature)
Massula latifolia (L.) Dulac
Typha ambigua Schur ex Rohrb.
Typha angustifolia var. inaequalis Kronf.
Typha angustifolia var. media Kronf.
Typha angustifolia var. sonderi Kronf.
Typha crassa Raf.
Typha elatior Raf. (Illegitimate)
Typha elatior Boreau (Illegitimate)
Typha elongata Dudley
Typha engelmannii A.Br. ex Rohrb.
Typha intermedia Schur
Typha latifolia var. ambigua Sond.
Typha latifolia var. angustifolia Hausskn.
Typha latifolia var. bethulona (Costa) Kronf.
Typha latifolia subsp. capensis Rohrb.
Typha latifolia f. divisa Louis-Marie
Typha latifolia var. elata Kronf.
Typha latifolia var. elatior Graebn.
Typha latifolia var. elongata Dudley
Typha latifolia subsp. eulatifolia Graebn.
Typha latifolia var. gracilis Godr.
Typha latifolia fo. remota Skvortsov
Typha latifolia subsp. maresii (Batt.) Batt.
Typha latifolia var. obconica Tkachik
Typha latifolia var. orientalis (C.Presl) Rohrb.
Typha latifolia var. remotiuscula (Schur) Simonk.
Typha latifolia subsp. shuttleworthii (W.D.J.Koch & Sond.) Stoj. & Stef.
Typha latifolia var. transsilvanica (Schur) Nyman
Typha latifolia var. typica Rothm.
Typha major Curtis
Typha media Pollini (Illegitimate)
Typha palustris Bubani
Typha pendula Fisch. ex Sond.
Typha remotiuscula Schur
Typha spathulifolia Kronf.
Typha latifolia (broadleaf cattail, bulrush, common bulrush, common cattail, cat-o'-nine-tails, great reedmace, cooper's reed, cumbungi) is a perennial herbaceous plant in the genus Typha. It is found as a native plant species in North and South America, Europe, Eurasia, and Africa. In Canada, broadleaf cattail occurs in all provinces and also in the Yukon and Northwest Territories, and in the United States, it is native to all states except Hawaii. It is an introduced and invasive species, and is considered a noxious weed, in Australia and Hawaii. It has been reported in Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, and the Philippines.
The plant is 1.5 to 3 metres (5 to 10 feet) high and it has 2–4 cm (¾ to 1½ inch) broad leaves, and will generally grow out in to 0.75 to 1 metre (2 to 3 feet) of water depth.
Typha latifolia has been found in a variety of climates, including tropical, subtropical, southern and northern temperate, humid coastal, and dry continental. It is found at elevations from sea level to 7,500 feet (2,300 m).
T. latifolia is an "obligate wetland" species, meaning that it is always found in or near water. The species generally grows in flooded areas where the water depth does not exceed 2.6 feet (0.8 meters), but has also been reported growing in floating mats in slightly deeper water. T. latifolia grows mostly in fresh water but also occurs in slightly brackish marshes. The species can displace other species native to salt marshes upon reduction in salinity. Under such conditions the plant may be considered invasive, since it interferes with preservation of the salt marsh habitat.
T. latifolia shares its range with other related species, and hybridizes with Typha angustifolia, narrow-leaf cattail, to form Typha × glauca (T. angustifolia × T. latifolia), white cattail. Common cattail is usually found in shallower water than narrow-leaf cattail.
Traditionally, Typha latifolia has been a part of certain indigenous cultures of British Columbia, as a source of food, medicine, and for other uses. The rhizomes are edible after cooking and removing the skin, while peeled stems and leaf bases can be eaten raw or cooked. The young flower spikes, young shoots, and sprouts at the end of the rootstocks are edible as well. The pollen from the mature cones can be used as a flavoring. The starchy rootstalks were ground into meal by Native Americans.
While Typha latifolia grows all over, including in rural areas, it is not advisable to eat specimens deriving from polluted water as it absorbs pollutants and in fact is used as a bioremediator. Specimens with a very bitter or spicy taste should not be eaten.
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