Ba'athist Iraq facts for kids

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Republic of Iraq

جمهورية العراق
Jumhūriyat Al-Irāq (Arabic)
1968–2003
Coat of arms of Iraq
Coat of arms
Motto: Allāhu Akbar
(1991-2003)
Anthem: Ardulfurataini Watan
("The Land of The Two Rivers", 1979-2003)
Map of Iraq.
Map of Iraq.
Capital
and largest city
Baghdad
Common languages Arabic, Kurdish
Government Dominant-party system
President  
• 1968-1979
Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr
• 1979-2003
Saddam Hussein
History  
• Coup and overthrow of Abdul Rahman Arif
17 July 1968
• Creation of the Coalition Provisional Authority
17 April 2003
Currency Iraqi dinar
ISO 3166 code IQ
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Iraq (1958-1968)
Coalition Provisional Authority

Ba'athist Iraq refers to Iraq during the rule of the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party from 1968 to 2003. Ba'athist rule in Iraq began after Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr and the Ba'ath Party overthrew Abdul Rahman Arif and Ba'athism became entrenched in Iraq's government as a dominant-party system committed to pan-Arab unification, state socialism, and secularism. Al-Bakir resigned as President in 1979 and was replaced by Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti. The Ba'athist regime was overthrown in 2003 after the invasion of Iraq by a multinational coalition, and formally dissolved by the Coalition Provisional Authority that year.

Territory

From 1968 to 2003, Iraq officially maintained most of the territory currently part of Iraq. A border dispute existed with Saudi Arabia until 1981. From 1980 to 1988, during the Iran-Iraq War, Iraq occupied and attempted to annex portions of Iran. From 1990 to 1991, Iraq occupied and annexed Kuwait. The annexation of Kuwait was not recognized and was declared an illegal violation of Kuwait's sovereignty by the United Nations. A UN-authorized international military coalition forced Iraqi military forces to retreat from Kuwait during the Gulf War and subsequently Kuwait's sovereignty was restored.

History

Presidency of Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr

Upon taking power, al-Bakir established a government dominated by the Ba'ath Party in alliance with the Iraqi Communist Party.

Presidency of Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti

After pressuring al-Bakir to resign, Saddam Hussein rose to power as President. Hussein radically altered the Ba'athist party. The party became militarized and party members took on uniforms.

Iran-Iraq War

Shortly after gaining power, Saddam Hussein waged war on Iran. The Iran-Iraq War occured from 1980 to 1988.

Gulf War

In August 1990, Saddam Hussein declared war on Kuwait, basing the attack on the claim that Kuwait was illegally slant-drilling its oil wells into Iraqi territory. Upon occupying Kuwait, Hussein declared that Kuwait was annexed to Iraq. The United Nations denounced the occupation as illegal and repeatedly ordered Iraq to withdraw its military forces from Kuwait and recognize Kuwait's sovereignty. Sanctions were imposed on Iraq by the UN to pressure Iraq to withdraw. In 1991, The UN Security Council approved international military action to restore Kuwait's sovereignty. The coalition led by the United States attacked and defeated Iraqi forces in Kuwait, inflicting serious casualties on Iraq. Retreating Iraqi forces sabotaged Kuwaiti oil wells causing massive fires across Kuwait's oil fields. Coalition forces inflicted serious damage on both the state and civilian infrastructure of Iraq.

Disarmament, United Nations weapons inspections, sanctions

Upon being militarily defeated in the Gulf War, Saddam Hussein submitted to allow UN weapons inspection, disarmament of Weapons of mass destruction (WMDs), and no-fly-zones over northern and southern areas of Iraq.

In 1998 Iraq accused UN weapons inspections of being infiltrated by spies and forced UN weapon inspectors to leave Iraq.


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