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Khalji Sultanate

1290–1320
Territory controlled by the Khaljis (dark green) and their tributaries (light green)
Territory controlled by the Khaljis (dark green) and their tributaries (light green)
Capital Delhi
Common languages Persian (official)
Religion
Sunni Islam
Government Sultanate
Sultan  
• 1290–1296
Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji
• 1296–1316
Alauddin Khalji
• 1316
Shihab ad-Din Umar
History  
• Established
1290
• Disestablished
1320
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Mamluk dynasty of Delhi
Vaghela dynasty
Tughlaq dynasty
Today part of  India
 Pakistan

The Khalji or Khilji dynasty was a Muslim dynasty which ruled large parts of the Indian subcontinent between 1290 and 1320. It was founded by Jalal ud din Firuz Khalji and became the second dynasty to rule the Delhi Sultanate of India. The dynasty is known for their faithlessness and ferocity, conquests into the Hindu south, and for successfully fending off the repeated Mongol invasions of India.

Alauddin Khalji changed the tax policies to strengthen his treasury to help pay the keep of his growing army and fund his wars of expansion. He raised agriculture taxes from 20% to 50%. During his reign, at least half of the population were slaves working as servants and guards for the Muslim nobles, amirs, court officials and commanders. The tax system introduced during the Khalji dynasty had a long term influence on Indian taxation system and state administration.

Slavery in India during Khalji, and later Islamic dynasties, included two groups of people - persons seized during military campaigns, and people who failed to pay tax on time. The first group were people captured during military campaigns. The second group of people were revenue defaulters, if a family failed to pay the annual tax in full on time, their property was seized and even some cases all their family members seized then sold as slaves.

The accounts describing the Khaljis' rise to power in India indicate that they were regarded as a race quite distinct from the Turks in late 13th century Delhi. Over the centuries, the Khaljis had married with the local Afghans and adopted their manners, culture, customs, and practices.

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