Abdication is the act of resigning from an office (official job), especially from being the leader of a country. The word is normally used for kings and queens who decide to give up their position which brings an end to a reign. The term is also used for popes.
A similar term for an elected or appointed official is resignation.
King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom is an example of a king who abdicated.
Select list of abdications
- Caedwalla of Wessex, 688
- Ine of Wessex, 726
- Pope Benedict IX, 1048
- Stephen II of Hungary, 1131
- Pope Celestine V, 1294
- Richard II of England, 1399
- Pope Gregory XII, 1415.
- Murad II, Ottoman Sultan, 1444-1445
- Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, 1556
- Christina of Sweden, 1654
- James II of England, 1688
- Philip V of Spain, 1724
- Ahmed III, Sultan of Turkey, 1730
- Napoleon I, Emperor of France, 1814 and 1815
- Charles X of France, 1830
- Pedro I of Brazil, 1831
- Miguel of Portugal, 1834
- Louis Philippe I of France, 1848
- Edward VIII of the United Kingdom, 1936
- Pope Benedict XVI, 2013.
- Queen Beatrix of the Netherlands, 2013
- King Albert II of Belgium, 2013
- King Juan Carlos I of Spain, 2014
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