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António Ramalho Eanes
General António Ramalho Eanes.png
Ramalho Eanes in 2019
President of Portugal
In office
14 July 1976 – 9 March 1986
Prime Minister Mário Soares
Alfredo Nobre da Costa
Carlos Mota Pinto
Maria de Lurdes Pintasilgo
Francisco Sá Carneiro
Francisco Pinto Balsemão
Aníbal Cavaco Silva
Preceded by Francisco da Costa Gomes
Succeeded by Mário Soares
President of the Democratic Renewal Party
In office
19 October 1986 – 29 May 1988
Vice President Hermínio Martinho
Preceded by Hermínio Martinho
Succeeded by Hermínio Martinho
President of the Revolutionary Council
In office
14 July 1976 – 30 September 1982
Preceded by Francisco da Costa Gomes
Succeeded by Office abolished
Chief of the Armed Forces General Staff
In office
14 July 1976 – 16 February 1981
Preceded by Francisco da Costa Gomes
Succeeded by Nuno de Melo Egídio
Chief of the Army General Staff
In office
6 December 1975 – 14 July 1976
Preceded by Carlos Soares Fabião
Succeeded by Vasco Rocha Vieira
Chair of Radio and Television of Portugal
In office
28 October 1974 – 11 March 1975
Preceded by Casimiro Gomes
Succeeded by João António de Figueiredo
Personal details
Born
António dos Santos Ramalho Eanes

(1935-01-25) 25 January 1935 (age 89)
Alcains, Castelo Branco, Portugal
Political party Independent
Other political
affiliations
Democratic Renewal Party (1986–87)
Spouse
Manuela Neto Portugal
(m. 1970)
Children 2
Alma mater Military Academy
Signature
Military service
Allegiance  Portugal
Branch/service  Portuguese Army
Years of service 1952–1986
Rank General
Battles/wars Portuguese Colonial War

António dos Santos Ramalho Eanes (Portuguese pronunciation: [ɐ̃ˈtɔniu ʁɐˈmaʎu iˈɐnɨʃ]; born 25 January 1935) is a Portuguese general and politician who was the 16th president of Portugal from 1976 to 1986.

Background

Born at Alcains, Castelo Branco, he is the son of Manuel dos Santos Eanes, a general contractor, and wife Maria do Rosário Ramalho.

Political career

Antonio dos Santos Ramalho Eanes DF-SC-84-10029
António Ramalho Eanes (left), while president, departs after a state visit to the United States. Secretary of State George Shultz is on the right. (USAF)

After a long military career in the Portuguese Colonial Wars, he was stationed in Portuguese Angola when the 25 April revolution of 1974 took place. He joined the Movimento das Forças Armadas (MFA or Armed Forces Movement) and after returning to Portugal, he was made president of RTP (Portuguese public television). He ordered the military operations against the pro-communist radical faction of the MFA on 25 November 1975, an event known as the 25 de Novembro, ending that year's "hot summer" (Verão quente).

In 1976 he was elected President of Portugal. At the end of 1980 he was re-elected, serving until February 1986. After his presidency, he headed the Democratic Renewal Party (Portuguese: [Partido Renovador Democrático] Error: {{Lang}}: text has italic markup (help)), and continued to support Social Democratic Party (PSD) minority government until 1987. He resigned in 1987 after defeated by PSD in legislative election.

He is also a Member of the Portuguese Council of State, as a former elected president of Portugal.

He rejected any suggestion of becoming a Marshal, considering the title unnecessary.

Honours

National

  • PRT Military Order of the Tower and of the Sword - Grand Collar.svg Grand Collar of the Military Order of the Tower and Sword (GColTE, 9 March 1986)
  • PRT Order of Prince Henry - Grand Collar BAR.svg Grand Collar of the Order of Prince Henry (GColIH, 20 June 2016)
  • PRT Order of Liberty - Grand Collar BAR.svg Grand Collar of the Order of Liberty (GColL, 18 December 2015)
  • PRT Order of Liberty - Grand Cross BAR.svg Grand Cross of the Order of Liberty (GCL, 25 April 2004)
  • PRT Military Order of Aviz - Knight BAR.svg Knight of the Military Order of Aviz (CvA, 19 January 1972)

Foreign

Family

He married at the Palace of Queluz on 28 October 1970 to Maria Manuela Duarte Neto de Portugal Ramalho Eanes (b. 29 December 1938), who was one of Portugal's most politically active First Ladies, making speeches at Democratic Renewal Party rallies while her husband was president. They had two sons, Manuel António (b. 5 May 1972) and Miguel (b. 1977).

Electoral results

1976 Portuguese presidential election

ed {{{2}}}
Candidates Supporting parties First round
Votes %
António Ramalho Eanes Independent 2,967,137 61.59
Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho Independent 692,147 14.37
José Pinheiro de Azevedo Independent 593,021 14.07
Octávio Rodrigues Pato Portuguese Communist Party 365,586 7.59
Total valid 4,817,630 100.00
Blank ballots 43,242 0.89
Invalid ballots 20,253 0.41
Total (turnout 75.47%) 4,881,125
Source: Comissão Nacional de Eleições

1980 Portuguese presidential election

ed {{{2}}}
Candidates Supporting parties First round
Votes %
António Ramalho Eanes Independent 3,262,520 56.44
António Soares Carneiro Democratic Alliance 2,325,481 40.23
Otelo Saraiva de Carvalho Independent 85,896 1.49
Carlos Galvão de Melo Independent 48,468 0.84
António Pires Veloso Independent 45,132 0.78
António Aires Rodrigues Workers Party of Socialist Unity 12,745 0.22
Carlos Brito Portuguese Communist Party left the race
Total valid 5,780,242 100.00
Blank ballots 44,014 0.75
Invalid ballots 16,076 0.28
Total (turnout 84.39%) 5,840,332
He left the race in favor of Ramalho Eanes.
Source: Comissão Nacional de Eleições

See also

Kids robot.svg In Spanish: António Ramalho Eanes para niños

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