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Clupeiformes facts for kids

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Clupeiformes
Temporal range: Late Jurassic to present
Herring2.jpg
Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Infraclass: Teleostei
Superorder: Clupeomorpha
Order: Clupeiformes
Goodrich, 1909
Type species
Clupea harengus
Linnaeus, 1758
Families

See text

Clupeiformes is the order of ray-finned fish that includes the herring family, Clupeidae, and the anchovy family, Engraulidae. The group includes many of the most important forage and food fish.

Clupeiformes are physostomes, which means that their gas bladder has a pneumatic duct connecting it to the gut. They typically lack a lateral line, but still have the eyes, fins and scales that are common to most fish, though not all fish have these attributes. They are generally silvery fish with streamlined, spindle-shaped, bodies, and they often school. Most species eat plankton which they filter from the water with their gill rakers.

The former order of Isospondyli was subsumed mostly by Clupeiformes, but some isospondylous fishes (isospondyls) were assigned to Osteoglossiformes, Salmoniformes, Cetomimiformes, etc.

Families

Phylogeny of Clupeiformes by Lavoué et al 2014.
Clupeiformes
Denticipitoidei

Denticipitidae


Clupeoidei

Engraulidae

Coiliinae



Engraulinae





Spratelloidinae




Pristigasteridae





Dussumieriidae s.s.



Chirocentridae



Clupeidae

Clupeinae




Ehiravinae




Alosinae



Dorosomatinae












The order includes about 405 species in seven families:

  • Order Clupeiformes
    • Suborder Denticipitoidei
      • Family Denticipitidae (denticle herring)
    • Suborder Clupeoidei
      • Family Engraulidae (anchovies)
      • Family Spratelloididae
      • Family Pristigasteridae (longfin herrings)
        • Subfamily Pristigasterinae
        • Subfamily Pelloninae
      • Family Chirocentridae (wolf herrings)
      • Family Dussumieriidae s.s. (round herrings)
      • Family Clupeidae [incl. Sundasalangidae) (herrings, sardines, shads, and menhadens)
        • Subfamily Clupeinae
        • Subfamily Ehiravinae
        • Subfamily Alosinae
        • Subfamily Dorosomatinae

Timeline of genera

QuaternaryNeogenePaleogeneCretaceousJurassicHolocenePleistocenePlioceneMioceneOligoceneEocenePaleoceneLate CretaceousEarly CretaceousUpper JurassicMiddle JurassicEarly JurassicAustroclupeaSarmatellaEngraulisXyneQuisqueGanolytesGanoessusEtringusAliseaPseudohilsaSardinopsIlishaAnchoaStolephorusSardinaPomolobusOpisthonemaAlosaSardinellaEtrumeusChirocentrusHarengulaClupeaHacquetiaKnightiaGasteroclupeaHistiothrissaLeufuichthysScombroclupeaOrnategulumDaitingichthysPachythrissopsQuaternaryNeogenePaleogeneCretaceousJurassicHolocenePleistocenePlioceneMioceneOligoceneEocenePaleoceneLate CretaceousEarly CretaceousUpper JurassicMiddle JurassicEarly Jurassic
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