Grand Duchy of Hesse facts for kids

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Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine

Großherzogtum Hessen und bei Rhein
1806–1918
Flag of Hesse
Flag
{{{coat_alt}}}
Coat of arms
Grand Ducal Hesse within the German Empire
Grand Ducal Hesse within the German Empire
Capital Darmstadt
Government Monarchy
Grand Duke  
• 180630
Louis I
• 183048
Louis II
• 184877
Louis III
• 187792
Louis IV
• 18921918
Ernest Louis
History  
• Established
13 August 1806 1806
• German Revolution
9 November 1918 1918
Area
1910 7,688.36 km2 (2,968.49 sq mi)
Population
• 1910
1282051
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt
Volksstaat Hessen

The Grand Duchy of Hesse (German: Großherzogtum Hessen) was a former state that existed in modern-day Germany. It was formed in 1806 after the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire as a result of the actions of Napoleon, who then elevated the former Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt to the level of grand duchy. For this reason, this state was occasionally known simply as Hesse-Darmstadt.

History

Because Hesse-Darmstadt was a member of Napoleon's Confederation of the Rhine, it was forced to give up a considerable amount of territory at the 1815 Congress of Vienna. The territory of the Duchy of Westphalia, which Hesse-Darmstadt received from the 1803 Reichsdeputationshauptschluss, was given to the Kingdom of Prussia. However, it received some territory on the western bank of the Rhine, including the important federal fortress at Mainz.

The Grand Duchy changed its name to the Grand Duchy of Hesse and by Rhine (German: Großherzogtum Hessen und bei Rhein) in 1816.

Subdivisions of Hesse

Hessen1930
The three provinces of the Grand Duchy of Hesse: Upper Hesse, Starkenburg and Rhenish Hesse

The Grand Duchy of Hesse was divided into three provinces:

  • Starkenburg: (Capital: Darmstadt) Right bank of the Rhine, south of the Main
  • Rhenish Hesse, (Capital: Mainz) Left bank of the Rhine, territory gained from the Congress of Vienna
  • Upper Hesse (Capital: Giessen) North of the Main, separated from Starkenburg by the Free City of Frankfurt, which was later annexed by Prussia in 1866.

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