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List of rulers of Tuscany facts for kids

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Carlo II di Parma
Carlo II di Parma

This is a list of rulers of Tuscany.

The rulers of Tuscany have varied over time, sometimes being margraves, the rulers of handfuls of border counties and sometimes the heads of the most important family of the region.

Margraves of Tuscany, 812–1197

House of Boniface
These were originally counts of Lucca who extended their power over the neighbouring counties.
  • Boniface I, 812-813
  • Boniface II, 828-834
  • Aganus, 835-845
  • Adalbert I, 847-886
  • Adalbert II the Rich, 886-915
  • Guy, 915-929
  • Lambert, 929-931
House of Boso
These were the (mostly illegitimate) relatives of Hugh of Arles, King of Italy, whom he appointed to their post after removing the dynasty of Boniface
  • Boso, 931-936
  • Humbert, 936-961
  • Hugh the Great, 961-1001

Various

  • Boniface (III), 1004-1011
  • Rainier, 1014-1027

House of Canossa

These were the descendants of the Counts of Canossa.
  • Boniface III, 1027-1052
  • Frederick, 1052-1055
  • Matilda, 1052-1115
    • Beatrice of Bar, 1052-1055 (regent as mother of Frederick and Mathilda)
    • Godfrey the Bearded, Duke of Lower Lorraine, 1053-1069 (regent as husband of Beatrice and step-father to Frederick and Matilda)
    • Godfrey the Hunchback, Duke of Lower Lorraine, 1069-1076 (regent as husband of Matilda)
    • Welf II, 1089-1095 (co-regent as husband of Matilda)

Various

  • Conrad von Scheiern, 1120-1127
  • Engelbert III of Sponheim, 1135-1137
  • Henry the Proud, Duke of Bavaria, 1137-1139
  • Ulrich of Attems, 1139-1152 (imperial vicar)
  • Welf VI, 1152-1160
  • Welf VII, 1160-1167
    • Rainald of Dassel, Archbishop of Cologne, 1160-1163 (imperial vicar)
    • Christian of Buch, Archbishop of Mainz 1163-1173 (imperial vicar)
  • Welf VI, 1167-1173
  • Philip, 1195-1197

After this, Tuscany was splintered between the competing republics of Florence, Pisa, Siena, Arezzo, Pistoia and Lucca. Since the 14th century, Florence gained dominance over Pistoia (1306, officially annexed 1530), Arezzo (1384), Pisa (1406), and Siena (1559). Lucca was an independent republic until the Napoleonic period in the 19th century.

Rulers of Florence, 1434-1569

De facto rulers of the House of Medici, 1434-1531

  • Cosimo de' Medici 1434-1464
  • Piero I de' Medici 1464-1469 ("The Gouty")
  • Lorenzo I de' Medici 1469-1492 ("The Magnificent")
  • Giuliano de' Medici 1469-1478
  • Piero II de' Medici 1492-1494
  • Republic restored 1494-1512
  • Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici 1512-1513
  • Lorenzo II de' Medici 1513-1519
  • Cardinal Giulio de' Medici 1519-1523
  • Ippolito de' Medici 1523-1527
  • Alessandro de' Medici 1523-1527
  • Republic restored 1527-1530
  • Alessandro de' Medici 1530-1531

Dukes of Florence, 1531-1569

  1. Alessandro 1532-1537
  2. Cosimo I 1537-1569

Medici Grand Dukes of Tuscany, 1569-1737

  1. Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1569-1574
  2. Francesco I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1574-1587
  3. Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1587-1609
  4. Cosimo II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1609-1621
  5. Ferdinando II de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1621-1670
  6. Cosimo III de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1670-1723
  7. Gian Gastone de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1723-1737

Habsburg-Lorraine Grand Dukes of Tuscany, 1737-1801

  1. Francesco II Stefano of Lorraine, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1737-1765
  2. Pietro Leopoldo I of Austria, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1765-1790
  3. Ferdinando III of Austria, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1790-1801

Bourbon Kings of Etruria, 1801-1807

  1. Lodovico I of Parma, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1801-1803
  2. Carlo Lodovico II of Parma, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1803-1807

Tuscany was given to France, 1807-1814. Napoleon's sister Elisa Bonaparte was given the honorary title of Grand Duchess of Tuscany, but did not actually rule over the region.

Habsburg-Lorraine Grand Dukes of Tuscany, 1814-1860

  1. Ferdinando III of Austria, Grand Duke of Tuscany (27 April 1814 - 18 June 1824
  2. Leopoldo II of Austria, Grand Duke of Tuscany (18 June 1824 - 21 July 1859) son of Ferdinando III.
  3. Ferdinando IV of Austria, Grand Duke of Tuscany (21 July 1859 - 22 March 1860) son of Leopoldo II

Leopoldo II was driven from Tuscany by revolution from 21 February to 12 April 1849, and again on 27 April 1859. He abdicated in favor of his son, Ferdinando IV, on 21 July 1859, but Ferdinando IV was never recognised in Tuscany, and was deposed by the government on 16 August. Tuscany was annexed by Kingdom of Sardinia, on 22 March 1860

Titular Grand Dukes, 1860-present

  • Ferdinand IV of Austria, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1860-1908
  • Joseph Ferdinand of Austria, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1908-1921
  • Peter Ferdinand of Austria, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1921-1948
  • Gottfried of Austria, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1948-1984
  • Leopold Franz of Austria, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1984-1993
  • Sigismund of Austria, Grand Duke of Tuscany 1993-Present

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