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Leopold II
Janos Donath 001.png
Leopold in the regalia of the Order of the Golden Fleece (painting by Johann Daniel Donat, 1806)
Holy Roman Emperor
King in Germany
Archduke of Austria
King of Hungary and Croatia
King of Bohemia
Reign 30 September 1790 – 1 March 1792
Coronations 9 October 1790, Frankfurt
15 November 1790, Pressburg
6 September 1791, Prague
Predecessor Joseph II
Successor Francis II
Chancellor The Prince of Kaunitz-Rietberg
Grand Duke of Tuscany
Reign 18 August 1765 – 22 July 1790
Predecessor Francis Stephen
Successor Ferdinand III
Born (1747-05-05)5 May 1747
Vienna, Austria, Holy Roman Empire
Died 1 March 1792(1792-03-01) (aged 44)
Vienna, Austria, Holy Roman Empire
Burial Imperial Crypt
Full name
  • English: Peter Leopold Joseph Anthony Joachim Pius Gotthard
  • German: Peter Leopold Josef Anton Joachim Pius Gotthard
House Habsburg-Lorraine
Father Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
Mother Maria Theresa, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia
Religion Roman Catholicism
Signature Leopold II's signature

Leopold II (Peter Leopold Joseph Anton Joachim Pius Gotthard; 5 May 1747 – 1 March 1792) was Holy Roman Emperor, King of Hungary and Bohemia, and Archduke of Austria from 1790 to 1792, and Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1765 to 1790. Unusually for his time, he opposed capital punishment and abolished it in Tuscany in 1786 during his rule there, making it the first nation in modern history to do so. He was a son of Empress Maria Theresa and her husband, Emperor Francis I, and the brother of Marie Antoinette, Queen of France, Maria Carolina of Austria and Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor. Leopold was a moderate proponent of enlightened absolutism. He granted the Academy of Georgofili his protection. Despite his brief reign, he is highly regarded. The historian Paul W. Schroeder called him "one of the most shrewd and sensible monarchs ever to wear a crown".

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