Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor facts for kids

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Joseph II
Anton von Maron 006.png
Portrait by Anton von Maron, 1775
King of the Romans
Reign 27 March 1764 – 20 February 1790
Coronation 3 April 1764, Frankfurt
Predecessor Francis I
Successor Leopold II
Co-monarch Maria Theresa
Holy Roman Emperor
Reign 18 August 1765 – 20 February 1790
Predecessor Francis I
Successor Leopold II
Co-monarch Maria Theresa
Archduke of Austria
Reign 18 August 1765 – 20 February 1790
Predecessor Francis I Stephen
Successor Leopold VII
Co-monarch Maria Theresa
  • King of Hungary and Croatia
  • King of Bohemia
Reign 29 November 1780 – 20 February 1790
Predecessor Maria Theresa
Successor Leopold II
Co-monarch Maria Theresa
Born 13 March 1741
Schönbrunn Palace, Vienna, Austria
Died 20 February 1790(1790-02-20) (aged 48)
Vienna, Austria
Burial Imperial Crypt
Spouse
Princess Isabella of Parma
(m. 1760; died 1763)

Maria Josepha of Bavaria
(m. 1765; died 1767)
Issue
  • Archduchess Maria Theresa
  • Archduchess Maria Christina
House Habsburg-Lorraine
Father Francis I, Holy Roman Emperor
Mother Maria Theresa of Austria
Religion Catholicism

Joseph II (German: Josef Benedikt Anton Michel Adam; English: Joseph Benedict Anthony Michael Adam; 13 March 1741 – 20 February 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from August 1765 and sole ruler of the Habsburg lands from November 1780 until his death. He was the eldest son of Empress Maria Theresa and her husband, Emperor Francis I, and the brother of Marie Antoinette.

He was thus the first ruler in the Austrian dominions of the House of Lorraine, styled Habsburg-Lorraine. Joseph was a proponent of enlightened absolutism; however, his commitment to modernizing reforms subsequently engendered significant opposition, which resulted in failure to fully implement his programmes.

He has been ranked, with Catherine the Great of Russia and Frederick the Great of Prussia, as one of the three great Enlightenment monarchs. His policies are now known as Josephinism.

He died with no sons and was succeeded by his younger brother, Leopold II.

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Joseph II, Holy Roman Emperor Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.