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Kingdom of Joseon

조선국 (朝鮮國)
조선왕조 (朝鮮王朝)
Royal emblem of Joseon of Joseon
Royal emblem of Joseon
Territory of Joseon after Jurchen conquest of King Sejong
Territory of Joseon after Jurchen conquest of King Sejong
Capital Hanseong
Common languages Korean
Neo-Confucianism (state religion),
Korean Buddhism
Government Monarchy
Historical era Early Modern Period
• Coup of 1388
May 20, 1388
• Coronation of Taejo
July 17, 1392
October 9, 1446
• Seven-Year War
• Treaty of Ganghwa
February 27, 1876
October 12, 1897
• 1500
est. 6,510,000
• 1753
est. 18,660,000
Currency Mun, Yang
1Became Emperor of Korea in 1897

The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries. It was founded by Yi Seong-gye in July 1392 and was replaced by the Korean Empire in October 1897. It was founded following the aftermath of the overthrow of Goryeo in what is today the city of Kaesong. Early on, Korea was retitled and the capital was relocated to modern-day Seoul. The kingdom's northernmost borders were expanded to the natural boundaries at the rivers of Amnok and Tuman through the subjugation of the Jurchens. Joseon was the last dynasty of Korea and its longest-ruling Confucian dynasty.

During its reign, Joseon encouraged the entrenchment of Chinese Confucian ideals and doctrines in Korean society. Neo-Confucianism was installed as the new dynasty's state ideology. Buddhism was accordingly discouraged and occasionally faced persecutions by the dynasty. Joseon consolidated its effective rule over the territory of current Korea and saw the height of classical Korean culture, trade, literature, and science and technology.

However, the dynasty was severely weakened during the late 16th and early 17th centuries, when the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–98) and the first and second Manchu invasions of 1636 nearly overran the Korean Peninsula, leading to an increasingly harsh isolated policy, for which the country became known as the "hermit kingdom" in Western literature. After the end of invasions from Manchuria, Joseon experienced a nearly 200-year period of peace.

However, whatever power the kingdom recovered during its isolation further waned as the 18th century came to a close, and faced with internal strife, power struggles, international pressure and rebellions at home, the Joseon dynasty declined rapidly in the late 19th century.

The Joseon period has left a substantial legacy to modern Korea; much of modern Korean culture, etiquette, norms and societal attitudes towards current issues developed during this period. The modern Korean language, its dialects and Korea's majority ethnic group, which refer to themselves as the "Joseon people", derive from the culture and traditions of the Joseon dynasty.

The Joseon Dynasty presided over two periods of great cultural growth, during which Joseon culture created the first Korean tea ceremony, Korean gardens, and extensive historic works. The royal dynasty also built several fortresses and palaces. The mid-to-late Joseon dynasty is considered the golden age of Korean painting.

The Joseon dynasty was noted for having Confucianism as its main philosophy. However Buddhism actually was a part of the Joseon dynasty. When studying literary exchanges between Confucian scholar officials, and Buddhist it is showing that Buddhism was not cast out. There literary exchanges show a middle ground of both philosophies.

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