Seoul (Korean: 서울) is the biggest city of the Republic of Korea (South Korea), and its capital. Its official name is Seoul Special City (Korean: 서울특별시 Seoul Teukbyeolsi). It has a population of 10 million which is about 1/5 of the Korean population and 1/7 of Korea peninsula, and covers an area of 610 km² that is only 0.6% of South Korea. It is the 6th most populated city in the world, and 7th most crowded. Seoul is the center of politics, economy, culture, transportation, and education for South Korea.
Seoul is thought to be the capital of Baekje Kingdom (백제) from 18 BC. At that time, the name of the city was Wiryeseong (Korean: 위례성). Wiryeseong is thought to be Songpa-gu, Seoul. During Silla Period (신라시대), Hanju (한주) was name of Seoul. During Goryeo Period (고려시대), the name of Seoul was Namgyeong (남경) which means "the south capital". There was a palace of Goryeo Dynasty. Hanyang was name of Seoul in late Goryeo Period. After establishment of Joseon Dynasty, the name of Seoul was Hanseong (한성) and Hanseong became the capital of Joseon Kingdom. From 1910 to 1945 when Korea was under Japanese rule, the name of Seoul was Gyeongseong (경성). Since South Korea was started in 1948, it has been the capital, except for a short time during the Korean War. Seoul became a special city in 1948. April 19th Revolution (4.19혁명) and June Revolution (6월 민주항쟁) was took place in Seoul.
The most famous soccer team in Seoul is FC Seoul. Their stadium is Sang-am World cup Stadium. It can seat 66,806 people.
Seoul has three famous baseball teams that all play as part of the Korea Baseball Organization. One is The Doosan Bears and they have many famous players. The LG Twins won the Korean Series in 1990 and 1994. Both of these teams play at Jamsil Stadium. Lastly The Nexen heroes who use Mokdong stadium .
Seoul has many stadiums such as Olympic stadium, Jamsil Stadium, Sang-am World Cup Stadium, and Mokdong Stadium. Olympic Stadium was built in 1988 for the Olympics. It was used for the opening and closing ceremonies. World Cup stadium was used for several games in the 2002 FIFA World Cup.
Today, Korean is the official language in Seoul and is spoken in both North and South Korea. Hangul is the alphabet for the written language. Hangul(한글,Korean) was made by Sejong the Great in 1443. Hangul has 19 consonants and 21 vowels and was said to be a scientific language patterned on the vocal organs. Hangul replaced the Hanja, or Chinese characters, which were used before and are still occasionally used.
Seoul has been known in past by the names Wirye-seong (위례성), Hanju (한주), Namgyeong (남영), Hanseong (한성), Hanyang (한양), Gyeongseong (경성). It’s current name comes from the Korean word meaning “capital city.” The name Seoul is thought to come from the Seorabeol (서라벌) which is Gyeongju’s old name. Gyeongju was the kingdom Silla’s capital city.
There are many universities in Seoul. Seoul National University, Korea University, Yonsei University, Sungkyunkwan University, Chungang University are in Seoul too. Seoul University is Korea’s first national university. Korea University is widely acknowledged as one of the country’s oldest, largest and top-ranked universities in Korea.
Seoul’s transportation dates back to the Korean empire, when the first streetcar lines were laid and a railroad between Seoul and Incheon was completed. Today, because of the effectiveness of Seoul’s transportation network it has become a great transportation center for Asia.
Seoul is connected to every big Korean city by the KTX high speed train, which goes more than 300km/h(186mph).
Seoul has a big subway now that connects every part of the city and many other close cities.
Seoul bus system is operated by the seoul metropolitan government, with four bus areas servicing most of the city.
There are two airports close to Seoul. One is Gimpo International Airport, the other is Incheon International Airport .
Museums, Art Galleries, and Libraries
- Museums and Art Galleries → See List of Museums in Seoul
- National Library of Korea
- National Assembly Library of Korea
- Changgyeong Palace
- Changdeok Palace
- Deoksu Palace
- Gyeongbok Palace
- Gyeonghui Palace
- Donggwanwang Shrine
- Seodaemun Prison
- Royal Shrine of Joseon Dynasty
- Pungnap Earthen Wall
- Lotte World
- Namdaemun Market
- Namsangol Hanok Village--Hanok is a traditional Korean house.
- N Seoul Tower
- University Road
- 63 Building
Parks & Stadiums
- Boramae Park
- Children's Grand Park
- Han River Citizens' Park
- Mount Bukhan National Park
- Seoul Forest
- Seoul Olympic Park
- World Cup Park
- Yangjae Citizens' Forest
- Yeoui Island Park
- Seoul Olympic Stadium
- Seoul World Cup Stadium
- Chongdong Theater
- National Center for Korean Traditional Performing Arts
- National Theater of Korea
- Sejong Center for the Performing Arts
- Seoul Arts Center
- Korean Broadcasting System(KBS)
- Educational Broadcasting System(EBS)
- Munhwa Broadcasting Corporation(MBC)
- Seoul Broadcasting System(SBS)
63 building is 249m high. It has cinema (63 IMAX), observatory - 60th floor (63 Sky Art), aquarium (63 Seaworld), and lots of amenity. The 63 building has 60 stories high and 3 stories below so it became 63 building. The elevator’s speed is 540m/min. Before Daehan Life Insurance’s building but it’s now Hanwha’s building.
N Seoul tower (Namsan Tower)
N Seoul tower is 236.7m high. It has restaurant and observatory. In the first floor, you can see Seoul only. But you can see Incheon in the fifth floor. YTN take over the building and it became YTN Seoul building (N Seoul building for short).
Gyeongbokgung is Joseon’s castle. It has Gangnyeongjeon, Geunjeongjeon, Gwanghwamun, Gyeonghoeru, Gyotaejeon, Hyangwonjeong, Jagyeongjeon, Jibokjae, Sajeongjeon, Sujeongjeon, Taewonjeon, Donggung, and Geoncheonggung.
Sungnyemun is Joseon’s south big door. It is national treasure number 1 in Korea. But, it had a fire in 2008. So it was fixed. And on May 4th 2013, it was done.
Seoul Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.