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Raymond Poincaré
Raymond Poincaré officiel (cropped).jpg
President of France
In office
18 February 1913 – 18 February 1920
Prime Minister Aristide Briand
Louis Barthou
Gaston Doumergue
Alexandre Ribot
Paul Painlevé
Georges Clemenceau
Alexandre Millerand
Preceded by Armand Fallières
Succeeded by Paul Deschanel
Prime Minister of France
In office
23 July 1926 – 29 July 1929
President Gaston Doumergue
Preceded by Édouard Herriot
Succeeded by Aristide Briand
In office
15 January 1922 – 8 June 1924
President Alexandre Millerand
Preceded by Aristide Briand
Succeeded by Frédéric François-Marsal
In office
21 January 1912 – 21 January 1913
President Armand Fallières
Preceded by Joseph Caillaux
Succeeded by Aristide Briand
Minister of Finance
In office
23 July 1926 – 11 November 1928
Preceded by Anatole de Monzie
Succeeded by Henry Chéron
In office
14 March 1906 – 25 October 1906
Prime Minister Ferdinand Sarrien
Preceded by Pierre Merlou
Succeeded by Joseph Caillaux
In office
30 May 1894 – 26 January 1895
Prime Minister Charles Dupuy
Preceded by Auguste Burdeau
Succeeded by Alexandre Ribot
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
15 January 1922 – 8 June 1924
Preceded by Aristide Briand
Succeeded by Edmond Lefebvre du Prey
In office
14 January 1912 – 21 January 1913
Preceded by Justin de Selves
Succeeded by Charles Jonnart
Minister of Education
In office
26 January 1895 – 1 November 1895
Prime Minister Alexandre Ribot
Preceded by Georges Leygues
Succeeded by Émile Combes
In office
4 April 1893 – 3 December 1893
Prime Minister Charles Dupuy
Preceded by Charles Dupuy
Succeeded by Eugène Spuller
Personal details
Born
Raymond Nicolas Landry Poincaré

(1860-08-20)20 August 1860
Bar-le-Duc, France
Died 15 October 1934(1934-10-15) (aged 74)
Paris, France
Political party Democratic Republican Alliance
Spouse(s)
Henriette Benucci (m. 1904)
Alma mater University of Nantes
University of Paris

Raymond Nicolas Landry Poincaré (20 August 1860 – 15 October 1934) was a French statesman who served three times as 58th Prime Minister of France, and as President of France from 1913 to 1920. He was a conservative leader, primarily committed to political and social stability.

Trained in law, Poincaré was elected as a Deputy in 1887 and served in the cabinets of Dupuy and Ribot. In 1902, he co-founded the Democratic Republican Alliance, the most important centre-right party under the Third Republic, becoming Prime Minister in 1912 and serving as President of the Republic for 1913-20. He attempted to wield influence from what was normally a figurehead role, being noted for his strongly anti-German attitudes, visiting Russia in 1912 and 1914 to repair Franco-Russian relations, which had become strained over the Bosnian Crisis of 1908 and the Agadir Crisis of 1911, and playing an important role in encouraging Russian military mobilization during the July Crisis of 1914. From 1917, he exercised less influence as his political rival Georges Clemenceau had become Prime Minister. At the Paris Peace Conference, he favoured Allied occupation of the Rhineland.

In 1922 Poincaré returned to power as Prime Minister. In 1923 he ordered the Occupation of the Ruhr to enforce payment of German reparations. By this time Poincaré was seen, especially in the English-speaking world, as an aggressive figure (Poincaré-la-Guerre) who had helped to cause the war in 1914 and who now favoured punitive anti-German policies. His government was defeated by the Cartel des Gauches at the elections of 1924. He served a third term as Prime Minister in 1926-9.

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