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Balkan Wars
Prilep Battle 1912 Postcard.jpg
Battle of Prilep, depicted in a Serbian postcard from 1912
Date 8 October 1912 – 18 July 1913
(9 months, 1 week and 3 days)
Location
  • Adrianople
  • Scutari
  • Kosovo
  • Manastir
  • Salonica provinces
  • Aegean Islands
  • Aegean Sea
Result

First Balkan War:

  • Balkan League victory
  • Treaty of London

Second Balkan War:

  • Greek, Serbian, Montenegrin, Ottoman and Romanian victories
  • Treaties of Bucharest and Constantinople
Belligerents

First Balkan War
 Ottoman Empire

Support

 Austria-Hungary

First Balkan War
Balkan League:

Support

 Russian Empire
Second Balkan War
 Bulgaria
Second Balkan War
Commanders and leaders
  • Ottoman Empire Mehmed V
  • Ottoman Empire Enver Pasha
  • Ottoman Empire Nazım Pasha
  • Ottoman Empire Zeki Pasha
  • Ottoman Empire Essad Pasha Surrendered
  • Ottoman Empire Kölemen Abdullah Pasha
  • Ottoman Empire Ali Rıza Pasha
  • Ottoman Empire Hasan Tahsin Pasha Surrendered
  • Ottoman Empire İsmail Hakkı Pasha
  • Ottoman Empire Rauf Pasha
  • Kingdom of Montenegro Nicholas I
  • Kingdom of Montenegro Prince Danilo Petrović
  • Kingdom of Montenegro Mitar Martinović
  • Kingdom of Montenegro Janko Vukotić
  • Kingdom of Bulgaria Ferdinand I
  • Kingdom of Bulgaria Mihail Savov
  • Kingdom of Bulgaria Ivan Fichev
  • Kingdom of Bulgaria Vasil Kutinchev
  • Kingdom of Bulgaria Nikola Ivanov
  • Kingdom of Bulgaria Radko Dimitriev
  • Kingdom of Greece Crown Prince Constantine
  • Kingdom of Greece Panagiotis Danglis
  • Kingdom of Greece Pavlos Kountouriotis
  • Kingdom of Serbia Radomir Putnik
  • Kingdom of Serbia Petar Bojović
  • Kingdom of Serbia Stepa Stepanović
  • Kingdom of Serbia Živojin Mišić
  • Kingdom of Romania Carol I
  • Kingdom of Romania Ferdinand I
  • Kingdom of Romania Alexandru Averescu

The Balkan Wars were a series of wars fought in the Balkan Peninsula in 1912 (First Balkan War) and 1913 (Second Balkan War).

The First Balkan War was fought by Greece, Serbia, Montenegro and Bulgaria (the Balkan League) against the Ottoman Empire. The main objective of the Balkan League was to annex the European territories of the Ottoman Empire, because large numbers of the people of the Balkan League lived under Ottoman rule. The war was a success and the Ottoman Empire lost almost its entire European territories.

The Second Balkan War was fought by Greece, Serbia, the Ottoman Empire and Romania against Bulgaria. Because Bulgaria felt that Greece and Serbia got more lands than they deserved, Bulgaria declared war on Greece and Serbia, which repelled the attacks. The Ottoman Empire and Romania declared war on Bulgaria, because they wanted to gain Bulgarian territories, and by the end of the Second Balkan War Bulgaria had lost almost all its gains from the First Balkan War.

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