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Coordinates: 44°N 21°E / 44°N 21°E / 44; 21

Republic of Serbia

Република Србија (Serbian)
Republika Srbija  (Serbian)
Coat of arms of Serbia
Coat of arms
Anthem: 
"Боже правде" / "Bože pravde"
(English: "God of Justice")
Location of Serbia (green) and the de facto independent Kosovo (light green) in Europe (dark grey).
Location of Serbia (green) and the de facto independent Kosovo (light green) in Europe (dark grey).
Capital
and largest city
Belgrade
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Official languages Serbian
Ethnic groups
(2011)
  • 83.3% Serbs
  • 3.5% Hungarians
  • 2.1% Roma
  • 2% Bosniaks
  • 9% others
  • (excluding Kosovo)
Demonym(s) Serbian
Government Unitary parliamentary
constitutional republic
Aleksandar Vučić
Ana Brnabić
Legislature National Assembly
Formation
• Medieval principality
late 8th century
• Medieval kingdom/empire
1217/1346
• Ottoman conquesta
1459–1556
• Principality of Serbia
1815
1878
• National unification
1912–1918
• Independent republic
5 June 2006
Area
• Including Kosovo
88,361 km2 (34,116 sq mi) (111th)
• Excluding Kosovo
77,474 km2 (29,913 sq mi)
Population
• 2017 estimate
7,040,272 (excluding Kosovo) Decrease (104th)
• Density
91.1/km2 (235.9/sq mi) (121th)
GDP (PPP) 2018 estimate
• Total
$112.475 billion (78th)
• Per capita
$16,063 (excluding Kosovo) (83rd)
GDP (nominal) 2018 estimate
• Total
$42.378 billion (86th)
• Per capita
$6,052 (excluding Kosovo) (88th)
Gini (2013) 29.6
low
HDI (2015) Increase 0.776
high · 66th
Currency Serbian dinar (RSD)
Time zone UTC+1 (CET)
• Summer (DST)
UTC+2 (CEST)
Driving side right
Calling code +381
ISO 3166 code RS
Internet TLD
  1. From the fall of Smederevo until conquest of Belgrade, Mačva and Vojvodina

The Republic of Serbia (Serbian: Република Србија / Republika Srbija), or usually just Serbia (Serbian: Србија / Srbija), is a country in Central Europe. The capital city is Belgrade. To the north of Serbia is the country Hungary. To the east of Serbia are the countries Bulgaria and Romania. To the south of Serbia are countries North Macedonia and Albania. To the west of Serbia are the countries Montenegro (the country that was once united with Serbia), Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia.

History

The oldest form of writing comes from an ancient civilization which inhabited Serbia called the Vinča culture and the symbols are called the Vinča script. Serbia is also home to the earliest known copper smelting sites and the birth of the Copper Age which lead humanity out of the Stone Age and into regular use of metallurgy. The same culture contains the earliest evidence of tin alloy bronze which replaced the much weaker arsenic bronze.

Medieval history

White Serbs, an early Slavic tribe from Northern Europe, came to Northern Greece in the 6th century. By the 8th century they had created the Serbian Principality, a Serbian country, in the Balkans. The Serbs became Christian around the 10th century. For 200 years, the Nemanjić dynasty ruled. They made Serbia a kingdom, built new towns, monasteries, and forts, and made Serbia bigger. In 1371 the Nemanjic Dynasty died out. Serbia became unsafe and local leaders fought each other for control. In 1389 the Ottoman Empire invaded Serbia. They fought against Serbia, Bosnia, the Knights Hospitaller, and the forces of many other local leaders, and won. The Turks fought the Serbs for 70 years until in 1459 the Ottoman Turks conquered Serbia.

Ottoman period

Once the Ottomans conquered Serbia, they got rid of the Serbian upper class. Most Serbs worked as farmers on land owned by Turks. They had to pay high taxes to the Turks. Some Serbs were forced to become Muslims. But the Serbs had their own laws in the Ottoman Empire through the millet system. During the 19th century Serbia gradually became independent. During World War I Austria conquered Serbia but lost the bigger war. Serbia joined other Balkan countries to form Yugoslavia.

Geography

Serbia is found in the Balkan peninsula and the Pannonian Plain. The Danube passes through Serbia. The Šar Mountains of Kosovo form the border with Albania. Over 31% of Serbia is covered by forest. National parks take up 10% of the country's territory. Serbia has 5 national parks and 22 nature reserves.

Economy

Serbia is classed as an upper-middle income economy.

The major processed vegetable crops in Serbia are potatoes, tomatoes and pepper. Serbia is one of the biggest world producers and exporters of raspberries. They are a leading exporter of frozen fruit.

There are five international airports in Serbia: Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport, Niš Constantine the Great Airport, Morava International Airport, Vršac International Airport and Pristina International Airport.

89% of households in Serbia have fixed telephone lines. There are over 9.60 million cell-phones users. This is larger than the number of the total population of Serbia itself by 30%.

Culture

Serbia has a total of eight sites on the UNESCO World Heritage list: The Early Medieval capital Stari Ras and the 13th-century monastery Sopoćani, and the 12th-century monastery Studenica, and the endangered Medieval Monuments in Kosovo group, comprising the monasteries of Visoki Dečani, Our Lady of Ljeviš, Gračanica and Patriarchate of Peć (former seat of the Serbian Church, mausoleum of Serbian royalty) and finally the Roman estate of Gamzigrad–Felix Romuliana. There are two literary memorials on UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme: The 12th-century Miroslav Gospel, and scientist Nikola Tesla's valuable archive.

The most prominent museum in Serbia is the National Museum of Serbia. It was founded in 1844. It houses a collection of more than 400,000 exhibits, over 5,600 paintings and 8,400 drawings and prints, and includes many foreign masterpiece collections, including Miroslav Gospel.

The official language, Serbian, is written in both the Cyrillic and Latin alphabets.

Composer and musicologist Stevan Stojanović Mokranjac is said to be one of the most important founders of modern Serbian music.

In the 1990s and the 2000s, many pop music performers rose to fame. Željko Joksimović won second place at the 2004 Eurovision Song Contest. Marija Šerifović won the 2007 Eurovision Song Contest. Serbia was the host of the Eurovision Song Contest 2008.

Sports

The most popular sports in Serbia are football, basketball, volleyball, handball, water polo and tennis.

The three main football clubs in Serbia are Red Star and Partizan, both from the capital city of Belgrade, and Vojvodina from Novi Sad.

Novak Djokovic, a multiple Grand Slam-winning tennis player and current number one, is from Serbia. Other tennis players from Serbia include Ana Ivanovic and Jelena Jankovic.

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