Novi Sad facts for kids
|Novi Sad - Нови Сад|
Panorama of Novi Sad
Location of Novi Sad within Serbia
|Settled by Scordisci||4th century B.C.|
|Founded||1694 as Racki Grad (Serb City)|
|City status||1 February 1748 as Novi Sad|
|• Novi Sad||1,105 km2 (426.5 sq mi)|
|Elevation||80 m (262 ft)|
|• Novi Sad||231,798|
|• Density||164.7/km2 (426.5/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET (UTC+1)|
|• Summer (DST)||CEST (UTC+2)|
Novi Sad; is the second largest city in Serbia, the capital of the autonomous province of Vojvodina and the administrative centre of the South Bačka District. It is located in the southern portion of the Pannonian Plain on the border of the Bačka and Srem geographical regions. Lying on the banks of the Danube river, the city faces the northern slopes of Fruška Gora.
According to the 2011 census[update], Novi Sad proper has a population of 250,439, while the entire urban area of Novi Sad (with the adjacent urban settlements of Petrovaradin and Sremska Kamenica) comprises 277,522 inhabitants. The population of the administrative area of the city, which includes its suburbs, totals 341,625 people.
Novi Sad was founded in 1694 when Serb merchants formed a colony across the Danube from the Petrovaradin fortress, a strategic Habsburg military post. In the following centuries, it transformed into an important trading and manufacturing centre as well as a centre of Serbian culture, earning it the nickname Serbian Athens. The city was heavily devastated in the 1848 Revolution, but was subsequently rebuilt and restored. Today, along with the Serbian capital city of Belgrade, Novi Sad is an industrial and financial centre important to the Serbian economy.
Novi Sad was selected to be a European Capital of Culture for the year 2021.
The city lies on the S-shaped meander of the river Danube, which is only 350 meters wide beneath the stones of Petrovaradin. A section of the Danube-Tisza-Danube Canal marks the northern edge of the wider city centre. The main part of the city lies on the left bank of the Danube in the region of Bačka, while the smaller settlements of Petrovaradin and Sremska Kamenica lie on the right bank, in the region of Srem (Syrmia). The section situated on the left bank of the river lies on one of the southernmost and lowest parts of the Pannonian Plain, while the Fruška Gora on the right bank is a horst mountain. Alluvial plains along the Danube are well-formed, especially on the left bank, and in some parts 10 kilometres (6 miles) from the river. A large part of Novi Sad lies on a fluvial terrace with an elevation between 80 to 83 metres (262 to 272 feet). The northern part of Fruška Gora is composed of massive landslide zones, although they are largely inactive with the exception of the Ribnjak neighbourhood between Sremska Kamenica and Petrovaradin Fortress.
The total land area of the city is 699 square kilometres (270 sq mi), while the urban area is 129.7 km2 (50 sq mi).
Novi Sad has an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification: Cfb) closely bordering a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification: Dfb) with a January mean of 0.2 °C (32.4 °F). The city experiences four distinct seasons. Autumn is longer than spring, with long sunny and warm periods. Winter is not so severe, with an average of 22 days of complete sub-zero temperature, and averages 25 days of snowfall. January is the coldest month, with an average low of −3.1 °C (26.4 °F). Spring is usually short and rainy, while summer arrives abruptly. The coldest temperature ever recorded in Novi Sad was −30.7 °C (−23.3 °F) on 24 January 1963, and the hottest temperature ever recorded was 41.6 °C (106.9 °F) on 24 July 2007.
The east-southeasterly wind, known as Košava, blows from the Carpathians and brings clear and dry weather. It mostly blows in autumn and winter, in 2 to 3 day intervals. The average speed of Košava is 25 to 43 km/h (16 to 27 mph), but certain strokes can reach up to 130 km/h (81 mph). In wintertime, accompanied by snow storms, the winds can cause large snowdrifts.
Novi Sad is a typical Central Europe an town in terms of its architecture. The city was almost completely destroyed during the 1848/1849 revolution, so architecture from the 19th century dominates the city centre. Small, older houses used to surround the centre of town, but they are now being replaced by modern, multi-story buildings.
Some of the oldest neighbourhoods in the city are Stari Grad (Old Town), Rotkvarija, Podbara, and Salajka. The areas of Sremska Kamenica and Petrovaradin, located on the right bank of the Danube, were separate towns in the past, but today belong to the urban area of Novi Sad. Liman, as well as Novo Naselje, are neighbourhoods built during the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, with contemporary style buildings and wide boulevards (Liman was divided into four sections, numbered I–IV).
New neighbourhoods, like Liman, Detelinara and Novo Naselje, emerged from the fields and forests surrounding the city. Following World War II, tall residential buildings were constructed to house the huge influx of people leaving the country side. Many old houses in the city centre, from the Rotkvarija and Bulevar neighbourhoods, were torn down in the 1950s and 1960s, to be replaced by multi-story buildings. Since the city has experienced a major construction boom in the last 10 years, some neighbourhoods like Grbavica have completely been transformed.
Neighbourhoods with single family homes are mostly located away from the city centre. Telep, situated in the southwest, and Klisa, in the north, are the oldest such districts. Adice and Veternik, both located west of the downtown area, have significantly expanded during the last 15 years, partly due to an influx of Serb refugees fleeing the Yugoslav wars.
According to the 2011 census, the population of the administrative area of Novi Sad (comprising both municipalities) included 270,831 Orthodox Christians, 21,530 Catholics, 8,499 Protestants, 4,760 Muslims, 84 Jews, and others. The city is the seat of the Serbian Orthodox Eparchy of Bačka and of the Muftiship of Novi Sad of the Islamic Community in Serbia.
In the 19th and early 20th century, Novi Sad was the capital of Serbian culture, earning it the nickname Serbian Athens. During that time, almost every Serbian novelist, poet, jurist, and publisher had lived or worked in Novi Sad at some point in their career. Some of these cultural workers included Vuk Stefanović Karadžić, Mika Antić, Đura Jakšić, among others. Matica srpska, the oldest cultural-scientific institution in Serbia, was moved from Budapest to Novi Sad in 1864, and now contains the second-largest library in the country, the Library of Matica srpska, with over 3.5 million volumes. The Serbian National Theatre, the oldest professional theatre among the South Slavs, was founded in Novi Sad in 1861. Today, Novi Sad is the second largest cultural centre in Serbia, after Belgrade. Municipal officials have made the city more attractive with numerous cultural events and music concerts. Since 2000, Novi Sad is home to the EXIT festival, one of the biggest music summer festivals in Europe. Other important cultural events include the Sterijino pozorje theatre festival, Zmaj Children Games, International Novi Sad Literature Festival, Novi Sad Jazz Festival, and many others. Novi Sad also hosts a fashion show twice a year, attracting local and international designers. Called Serbia Fashion Week, the event also features the works of applied artists, musicians, interior decorators, multimedia experts and architects.
In addition to the Serbian National Theatre, other prominent playhouses consist of the Novi Sad Theatre, Youth Theatre, and the Cultural Centre of Novi Sad. The Novi Sad Synagogue also houses many cultural events. Other cultural institutions include the Detachment of the Serbian Academy of Science and Art, Library of Matica Srpska, Novi Sad City Library and Azbukum. The city is also home to the Archive of Vojvodina, which has collected numerous documents from the Vojvodina region dating back to 1565.
Novi Sad has several folk song societies, which are known as kulturno-umetničko društvo or KUD. The best known societies in the city are: KUD Svetozar Marković, AKUD Sonja Marinković, SKUD Željezničar, FA Vila and the oldest SZPD Neven, established in 1892.
National minorities express their own traditions, folklore and songs through various societies such as the Hungarian MKUD Petőfi Sándor, Slovak SKUD Pavel Jozef Šafárik, and Ruthenian RKC Novi Sad.
Typical Serbian food can be found in Novi Sad, including traditional dishes like ćevapi, burek, kajmak, kiseli kupus, kiflice and pasulj, as well as fish dishes, local cheeses and charcuterie. Restaurants and farmsteads offer fresh produce from local farmers and also regional vintages from Fruska Gora's wineries. Modern alternatives are available at some of the city's top restaurants, which prepare traditional fare with an updated twist.
Pastry shops serve local specialties such as layered cakes made from ground nuts and cream, referred to as 'torta' in Serbian. Desserts also often include raspberries, one of the region's largest exports, and historic Dunavska Street is home to many ice cream parlors.
Since 2000, the number of tourists visiting Novi Sad each year has steadily risen. During the annual EXIT music festival in July, the city is full of young people from all over Europe. In 2017, over 200,000 visitors from 60 countries came to the festival, attending about 35 concerts. Other events include shows and congresses organized by Novi Sad Fair, a local management company, bringing in many businesspersons and entrepreneurs to the city. Every May, Novi Sad is home to the largest agricultural show in the region, having attracted 600,000 attendees in 2005. The tourist port, near Varadin Bridge in the city centre, welcomes cruise boats from across Europe that travel the Danube river.
The most recognized structure in Novi Sad is the Petrovaradin Fortress, which dominates the skyline and also offers scenic views of the city. The nearby historic neighbourhood of Stari Grad has many monuments, museums, cafes, restaurants and shops. Also in the vicinity, is the Fruška Gora National Park, approximately 20 km (12 mi) from the city centre.
Novi Sad had always been a developed city within the former Yugoslavia. In 1981, its GDP per capita was 172% of the Yugoslav average. During the 1990s, the city, like the rest of Serbia, was severely affected by an internationally imposed trade embargo and hyperinflation of the Yugoslav dinar. The embargo, along with economic mismanagement, led to a decay or demise of once important industrial combines, such as Novkabel (electric cable industry), Pobeda (metal industry), Jugoalat (tools), Albus and HINS (chemical industry). Practically the only viable large facilities remaining today are the oil refinery, located northeast of the town, and the thermal power plant.
The significance of Novi Sad as a financial centre is already proven, by being home to the national headquarters of numerous banks, such as Erste Bank, OTP bank, and Crédit Agricole; as well as the third largest insurance company in Serbia, DDOR Novi Sad. Furthermore, the city is home to major energy companies like Naftna Industrija Srbije oil company and Srbijagas gas company. It is also the seat of the wheat market.
The following table gives a preview of total number of employed people per their core activity (as of 2017):
|Agriculture, forestry and fishing||1,472|
|Distribution of power, gas and water||2,033|
|Distribution of water and water waste management||2,278|
|Wholesale and retail, repair||26,075|
|Traffic, storage and communication||7,810|
|Hotels and restaurants||5,016|
|Media and telecommunications||8,470|
|Finance and insurance||4,749|
|Property stock and charter||593|
|Professional, scientific, innovative and technical activities||9,193|
|Administrative and other services||7,893|
|Administration and social assurance||8,092|
|Healthcare and social work||13,252|
|Art, leisure and recreation||3,207|
- Air transport
Novi Sad currently does not have its own civil airport. The city is about a one-hour drive from Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport, which connects it with capitals across Europe. Small Čenej Airport north of the city is used for sport and agricultural purposes. There are plans to upgrade it to serve for cargo and small-scale public transport, but the future of this initiative is uncertain.
- City transport
The main public transportation system in Novi Sad consists of bus lines, operated by public company JGSP Novi Sad. There are twenty-one urban lines and twenty-nine suburban lines, with main bus station at the northern end of the Liberation Boulevard, next to the Novi Sad railway station. In addition, there are numerous taxi companies serving the city.
The city used to have a tram system, but it was disassembled in 1958.
- Rail and road transport
Novi Sad lies on the branch B of the Pan-European Corridor X. The A1 motorway connects the city with Subotica to the north and the capital city of Belgrade to the south. It is concurrent with Budapest–Belgrade railroad, which connects it to major European cities. Novi Sad is connected with Zrenjanin and Timișoara on the northwest and Ruma on south with a regional highway; there are long-term plans to upgrade it to a motorway or an expressway, with a tunnel under the Fruška Gora shortcutting the Iriški Venac mountain pass.
Four bridges cross the Danube in Novi Sad: Liberty Bridge (Most Slobode) connects Sremska Kamenica with the city proper. Varadin Bridge (Varadinski most) and Žeželj Bridge (Žeželjev most), connects Petrovaradin with city centre, along with the temporary Road-Railway Bridge, built in 2000 and used chiefly for railway and heavy truck traffic. Four bridges span the Danube-Tisa-Danube canal, running north of the city centre.
- Water transport
The Port of Novi Sad is located on the outskirts of the city, on Danube river. With over million tonnes of load turnover, it is the largest cargo port in Serbia.
Images for kids
Prince Tomislav Karađorđević Bridge destroyed in World War II.
Novi Sad Facts for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.