Arab Republic of Egypt
جمهورية مصر العربية
Ǧumhūriyyat Maṣr al-ʿArabiyyah
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem: 
"Bilady, Bilady, Bilady"
"My country, my country, my country"
Capital
and largest city
Cairo
Official languages Arabic
Demonym Egyptian
Government Provisional government
 -  President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi
 -  Prime Minister Sherif Ismail
Legislature Parliament (dissolved)
 -  Upper house Shura Council (dissolved)
 -  Lower house House of Representatives (dissolved)
Establishment
 -  Unification of Upper
and Lower Egypt
c. 3200 BC 
 -  Muhammad Ali Dynasty inaugurated 9 July 1805 
 -  Independence from
the United Kingdom
28 February 1922 
 -  Republican regime 18 June 1953 
 -  Revolution Day 25 January 2011 
 -  Current Constitution 18 January 2014 
Area
 -  Total 1,002,450 km2 (30th)
387,048 sq mi
 -  Water (%) 0.632
Population
 -  2015 estimate 90,120,000 (14th)
 -  2006 census 76,699,427 (total)
incl. 3,901,396 abroad
 -  Density Real density:
2,755.2/km2 (38th)
7,136/sq mi
Arithmetic density:
76.3/km2 (126th)
197.5/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $508.265 billion
 -  Per capita $6,361
GDP (nominal) 2011 estimate
 -  Total $231.111 billion
 -  Per capita $2,892
Gini (1999–00) 34.5
medium
HDI (2010) Increase 0.620
medium · 101st
Currency Egyptian pound (EGP)
Time zone EET (UTC+2 (No DST Since 2011))
Drives on the right
Calling code +20
Internet TLD .eg, مصر.
a. Literary Arabic is the sole official language. Egyptian Arabic is the national spoken language. Other dialects and minority languages are used regionally.
b. De facto interim head of state.
c. Densities are based on 2006 population figures. The gap between arithmetic and real densities is due to the fact that 98% of Egyptians live on 3% of the territory.

Egypt is a country in northeast Africa. Its capital city is Cairo. Egypt is famous for its ancient monuments, such as the Pyramids and the Sphinx.

History

Egypt has been an independent country since 1922. It is a member of the United Nations and the Arab League. It was a republic from 1952 after the revolution of 1952 led by General Muhammad Naguib, who became the first President.

Geography

Egypt, is a large country, but a large portion of it is desert. Most people live in areas around the coast of the Mediterranean Sea and along the Nile River. This includes the cities of Cairo, Alexandria, Aswan, and Port Said. Not many people live in the desert. Today, Egypt has about 90 million people.

Egypt is divided into 29 areas, called Governorates of Egypt.

Politics

Egypt is a country which has had many different rulers and many political systems. Here is a summary of its political history since World War II. After this war, Egypt was ruled by a king, Farouk of Egypt (11 February 1920 – 18 March 1965). He was the last ruler of the Muhammad Ali dynasty.

Farouk was overthrown on 23 July 1952 by a military coup. The coup was led by Muhammad Naguib, and Gamal Abdel Nasser. From then on, Egypt had military rulers or rulers who had the backing of the army and many citizens.

Nasser became President, from 1956 to 1970. Later rulers were Anwar Sadat, and Hosni Mubarak. After Mubarak came a change. In 2012, an attempt was made to have a democratic election for the post of President. The winner was the Moslem Brotherhood candidate, Mohamed Morsi. The events which followed are still controversial, but one aspect stands out. Morsi issued a declaration that in effect gave him unlimited powers. He had the power to legislate (make laws) without any legal overview by the courts. This caused widespread protests. On 3 July 2013 he was unseated by a military coup council (a coup d'état). After an election in June 2014, Abdel Fattah el-Sisi became President of Egypt. Islamist movements, such as the Muslim Brotherhood, rejected the change of regime as a military coup, and not democratic.

Mohamed Morsi is currently under sentence of death, though this may not be carried out.

Revolution of 2011

In January 2011, thousands of protesters gathered in Cairo. They wanted Hosni Mubarak to leave office. He had been the President for almost 30 years. On February 11, 2011, Vice President Omar Suleiman made an announcement. He said that Mubarak agreed to leave office.

Demographics

Religion

Today, the people of Egypt are mostly Sunni Muslims. There are still many Christians in Egypt today. Many of these belong to the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria.

Languages

The official language in Egypt is Arabic. A high percentage of the population, however, speaks English. French and German are also taught in Egypt as second language.

Famous people

Many famous people are from Egypt. Some of these include Omar Sharif, who was an international actor, Boutros Boutros-Ghali, who was the first person from Africa to lead the United Nations, and four Nobel Prize winners: Anwar Sadat, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1978, Naguib Mahfouz, who won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1988, Ahmed Zewail, who won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1999, and Mohamed ElBaradei, who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2005.

Culture

Egypt is a country with an immense cultural mix. There are many differences between life in the countryside as compared with life in the large cities. There are differences between the families which are Muslim, and the smaller number which are Coptic Christians. There are noticeable differences in the standards of education. Families are close-knit, and look after each other.

Tourism

Giza Plateau - Pyramid of Menkaure
Pyramid of Menkaure

Tourism is one of the most important national incomes in Egypt. In 2008, about 12 million tourists visited Egypt providing nearly $12 billion of national income to Egypt. Tourism affects the economy of the country as a whole.

Giza Necropolis is one of Egypt's iconic sites. It is a popular destination for tourists to visit. It includes the Great Pyramid of Giza, one of the Seven Wonders of the World.

Transport

There are methods of transport in Egypt.

Metro

Cairo Metro Sadat plathome
Cairo Metro, Sadat Station

Cairo Metro is one of the most important projects in Egypt. It consists of 3 lines. Metro is the most preferable transport in Egypt due to persistent major traffic jams in the streets of Cairo.

A Metro line 4 is right now being developed and expected to be active in future reaching New Cairo District.

Air transport

Egypt is a country that puts air transport at the forefront. It established EgyptAir in 1932. The airline is based in Cairo International Airport and is owned by the government.

Images


Egypt for Kids. Kiddle Encyclopedia.