Kyuzo Mifune (left) and Kanō Jigorō (right)
|Country of origin||Japan|
|Parenthood||Various koryū jujutsu schools, principally Tenjin Shin'yō-ryū and Kitō-ryū|
|Descendant arts||Bartitsu, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, Hapkido, Kosen judo, Krav Maga, Kūdō, Modern arnis, Sambo,Shoot wrestling, Submission wrestling, Vale tudo|
|Olympic sport||Since 1964 (men) and 1992 (women)|
|Official website||International Judo Federation (IJF)
Judo was created as a physical, mental and moral exercise in Japan, in 1882, by Jigoro Kano. It is generally categorized as a modern martial art which later evolved into a combat and Olympic sport.
Its most prominent feature is its competitive element, where the objective is to either throw or takedown an opponent to the ground, immobilize or otherwise subdue an opponent with a pin, or force an opponent to submit with a joint lock or a choke. Strikes and thrusts by hands and feet as well as weapons defenses are a part of judo, but only in pre-arranged forms and are not allowed in judo competition or free practice. A judo practitioner is called a judoka.
Rank and grading
Judo is a hierarchical art, where seniority of judoka is designated by what is known as the nihongo ranking system. This system was developed by Jigoro Kano. Beginning students progress through various grades.
A judoka's position within the kyu-dan ranking system is displayed by the color of their belt. Beginning students typically wear a white belt, progressing through ranks until they are deemed to have achieved a level sufficient to be a dan grade, at which point they wear the Black belt. The kyu-dan ranking system has since been widely adopted by modern martial arts.
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